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Rynek Ubezpieczeniowy Essay

1400 words - 6 pages

Jednym z wyodrębnionych rynków usług finansowych jest rynek usług ubezpieczeniowych. Jest on układem złożonym obejmującym całokształt powiązań oraz relacje zachodzące między jednostkami, które oferują ten rodzaj usług a tymi, które zgłaszają na nie zapotrzebowanie zgodnie z ich możliwościami finansowymi. W niniejszej pracy zostanie dokonana teoretyczna charakterystyka tego rynku a także przedstawiony zostanie rynek ubezpieczeniowy w Polsce. Ponadto w niniejszej pracy zaprezentowane zostaną główne zagadnienia dotyczące funduszy emerytalnych.

Istotą ubezpieczenia jest pokrycie przyszłych potrzeb majątkowych, wywołanych u poszczególnych jednostek ...view middle of the document...

Ubezpieczenia gospodarcze oparte są na umowie między dwoma podmiotami, z których jeden oddaje ryzyko a drugi je przyjmuje, za odpowiednią zapłatą. Umowa taka zawiera zobowiązania stron.
Ze względu na przedmiot ubezpieczenia dzielimy ubezpieczenia gospodarcze na majątkowe i osobowe.
Ponadto ubezpieczenia majątkowe dzielą się jeszcze na: mienie i OC, natomiast osobowe: na życie i NW . Nie jest to oczywiście jedyny podział, istnieje wiele innych biorących pod uwagę inne kryteria, np. branże, regulacje prawne, autonomię stron.
2.2 Rynek ubezpieczeń gospodarczych w Polsce

Suma całkowitych składek krajów Unii Europejskiej wynosiła ponad 1 bilion EUR w 2013 r. Polska ze składką 13,8 mld EUR w 2013 r. stanowiła 1,3% rynku unijnego i zajmowała 12 miejsce w rankingu krajów EU27.
Ubezpieczenia gospodarcze dzielimy na dwa podstawowe działy - ubezpieczenia na życie (dział I) i pozostałe ubezpieczenia osobowe i ubezpieczenia majątkowe (dział II). W strukturze ubezpieczeń w Polsce w 2013 r. ubezpieczenia Działu I - 54%, Działu II – 46%.
W 2013 r. wartość kapitału podstawowego ubezpieczycieli na życie wyniosła 3 150,4 mln zł, w tym inwestorzy zagraniczni partycypowali w kwocie 2 082,0 mln zł, co stanowi 66,1% udziału kapitału zagranicznego w kapitale podstawowym. W Dziale II wartość kapitału podstawowego wyniosła 2 636,1 mln zł, z czego 2 211,0 mln zł stanowił kapitał zagraniczny. Udział kapitału zagranicznego w kapitale podstawowym tego działu wyniósł 83,9%. Najwyższy był udział kapitału austriackiego, niemieckiego, holenderskiego.
Wszystkie zakłady ubezpieczeń działające w Polsce reprezentują Polska Izba Ubezpieczeń. Liczba zakładów objętych statystyką PIU zmalała z 71 w 2005 r. do 56 w 2014 r. (w Dziale II- z 38 do 30, w Dziale I z 33 do 26). Zgodnie z polskim prawem, jeden i ten sam ubezpieczyciel nie może jednocześnie oferować klientom ubezpieczeń majątkowych i ubezpieczeń na życie.
Składka przypisana brutto w Polsce w 2014 r wynosiła 54, 92 mld zł, w 2013 r – 57,82 mld zł.
Odszkodowania i świadczenia w Polsce w 2014 r wynosiło 34,16 mld zł, w 2013 r – 36,3 mld zł.
Łączna składka zakładów Działu I wynosiła w 2014 r. 28 667 mln zł w porównaniu z 31 264 mln PLN w roku 2013. Lider Działu I – PZU Życie – miał w 2014 r. 28,5% rynku mierzonego składką. Składki pierwszych pięciu (PZU Życie, Open Life TUŻ S.A., COMPENSA ŻYCIE S.A., AVIVA-OGÓLNE S.A., METLIFE) – 56,7%.
Łączna składka zakładów Działu II wynosiła w 2014 r. 26 253 mln zł w porównaniu z 26 603 mln zł w roku 2013. Lider Działu II – PZU – miał w 2014 r. 31,5% rynku mierzonego składką, tj. o 0,4 p.p. więcej niż w 2013 r. Składki pierwszych pięciu zakładów (PZU S.A., ERGO HESTIA S.A., ALLIANZ POLSKA S.A., WARTA S.A., COMPENSA S.A.) stanowiły 68,2% rynku.
2.3 Charakterystyka ubezpieczeń społecznych

Ubezpieczenia społeczne – mają charakter wyłącznie osobowy. Są to ubezpieczenia publiczne, a więc stoi za nimi państwo, a więc mają charakter polityki społecznej. Podlegają obowiązkowo...

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