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Rusia Dan Eropa Essay

1214 words - 5 pages

Dalam pembentukan negara- negara di kawasan Rusia, Eropa Timur dan Asia Tengah, Uni Soviet memiliki peranan yang sangat penting. Uni Soviet, tentunya tidak dapat dilepaskan pengaruh Komunisme di kawasan Eurasia. Pengaruh Komunisme dan paham-paham beraliran Marxisme-Komunisme seperti Leninisme dan Stalinisme memegang peranan penting dalam pembentukan negara dan masyarakat di Rusia, Eropa Timur, dan Asia Tengah. Komunisme dan Stalinisme juga memiliki andil dalam penyelesaian permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh masyarakat di kawasan Eurasia sesudah Perang Dingin. dalam jurnal ini akan dibahas mengenai komunisme, stalinisme dan leninisme serta dampak yang diberikan pada perkembangan masyarakat di ...view middle of the document...

Pemikiran Marx dan Engel ini menolak pemikiran teoritisi-teoritisi sebelum Sosialisme orisinil.

Vladimir Lenin mendukung gagasan Komunisme yang dibawa oleh Karl Marx dan Friedrich Engel. Namun Lenin mempertanyakan bahwa bagaimana kaum proletar akan mampu menumbangkan kaum borjuis dan mendapatkan kembali hak-hak dan kebebasan mereka. Lenin kemudian mencetuskan bahwa cara terbaik yang harus dilakukan oleh kaum proletar adalah dengan mendirikan partai politik (Wicaksana 2015). Pembentukan partai politik bertujuan untuk mengakomodasi kekuatan dan dukungan kaum buruh. Sehingga kaum borjuis akan lebih mudah untuk ditumbangkan dengan dukungan serta kekuatan massa yang besar. Selain itu Lenin juga menolak adanya negara, karena negara dianggap sebagai penghalang kaum proletar untuk mendapatkan keinginannya serta menganggap negara hanya sebagai representasi kaum borjuis demi kepentingan mereka. Kekuatan partai Komunis milik Lenin mampu menggulingkan kekuasaan Tsar Nicholas di Rusia yang kemudian menyebabkan lahirnya Revolusi Bolshevik tahun 1917. Meskipun di awal Lenin tidak menginginkan adanya negara, namun pada akhirnya Lenin mendirikan sebuah kesatuan negara yang dinamai Uni Soviet. Keberadaan negara dalam pandangan Lenin ini hanya dianggapnya sebagai titik singgah (Wicaksana 2015). Negara hanya diberi kewenangan sebagai pengatur distribusi sumber daya ke masyarakat. Pembentukan negara Uni Soviet oleh Partai Komunis dan Lenin ini diintegrasikan secara paksa, artinya Lenin dan partainya sesungguhnya tidak memiliki legitimasi dari negara-negara satelitnya (Kuzio 2001, 170).

Kemudian kekuasaan Lenin digantikan oleh suksesornya yang bernama Joseph Stalin. Dibawah kepemimpinannya, komunisme semakin diperluas jangkauannya, bukan hanya domestik, melainkan juga di tingkat internasional. Ini juga berkaitan dengan keyakinan Stalin bahwa diperlukan keberadaan negara komunis yang kuat. Stalin meyakini bahwa untuk dapat mencapai keberhasilan kaum proletar meraih kebebasan dan hak-haknya, diperlukan jaringan luas untuk basis dukungan (Wicaksana 2015). Oleh sebab itu keberadaan negara diperlukan untuk mengawal revolusi kaum proletar tersebut sampai tuntas. Perjuangan komunis tidak dapat dilakukan secara sendiri-sendiri, perlu dilakukan selain domestik di internal negara juga di tingkat internasional (Wicaksana 2015). Hal inilah yang kemudian membedakan kepemimpinan antara Stalin dan Lenin. Tidak berhenti pada itu saja, Stalin terus menyebarkan Komunisme ke negara-negara Eropa Timur seperti Cekoslowakia, Hungaria, Rumania, hingga Jerman Timur (Crampton 1997, 212). Stalin dibanding Lenin, lebih radikal lagi dengan konsepsi Sosialisme dan Komunismenya. Karakter represif benar-benar terlihat lewat kebijakan-kebijakan yang diambil (Wicaksana 2015).

Pada era Stalinisme terdapat 4 aspek pokok yang terbentuk, pertama adalah aspek politik. Aspek politik di Uni Soviet secara keseluruhan dipengaruhi oleh Stalinisme. Totalitarianisme adalah...

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