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Rural Developement India Essay

3019 words - 13 pages

Poverty Alleviation through Rural Development
Sunil Kumar
September, 2005 Department of Planning, Government of Uttar Pradesh


Poverty Alleviation through Rural Development
Uttar Pradesh, with a population of 16.62 crore as per 2001 Census, is the most populous State of the country. UP covers 2,40,928 sq.kms. and accounts for 7.3 percent of total area of the country which makes it the fifth largest State in the country. About 79% of the State’s population reside in rural areas. It is estimated that 31.15% of the State’s population were living below the poverty line in 1999-2000 with almost 80% concentrated in the rural areas. Keeping in view the population and size of the State, ...view middle of the document...

Uttar Pradesh has also set up the State Finance Commissions and based on their recommendations funds are being transferred to the PRIs. State Government is also taking steps to ensure timely release of grants received on the recommendations of the Twelfth Finance Commission to PRIs. Uttar Pradesh is likely to receive Rs.2928 crore between 2005-10 for rural PRIs and Rs. 517 crore for urban PRIs. State Government is committed to transferring funds, functions and functionaries to the PRIs as per the constitutional mandate. 5. However, there is need to take up capacity building exercise on a massive scale for the Panchayati Raj functionaries and strengthen the


accounting and audit systems for the Local Bodies. Demands for introducing transparency in the functioning of the Panchayats, holding regular meetings of the Gram Sabha and making public details regarding schemes undertaken and funds received and spent by the Panchayats are being voiced. All these issues need to be addressed. Definition of Poverty 6. Poverty, in India, has been defined by the Planning Commission in terms of the level of per capita consumer expenditure sufficient to provide an average daily intake of 2400 calories per person in rural areas and 2100 calories per person in urban areas, plus a minimal allocation for basic non-food items. In this definition focus is on material deprivation and poverty has been defined in terms of incomes or level of consumption. Based on 2001-02 prices, a household with an annual income of below Rs.19984 per annum in rural areas and Rs.25546 in urban areas are deemed to be living below the poverty line in Uttar Pradesh. 7. However, there is a view that poverty should be looked upon as unacceptable deprivation in well-being which includes material deprivation, human deprivation, and a range of other deprivations: lack of voice, vulnerability, violence, destitution, social and political exclusion, lack of dignity and basic rights. While official poverty lines have to be taken into account, there is also need to look upon the broader connotation of poverty and accordingly formulate action plan for poverty alleviation. Profile of the Poor 8. Poverty is a result of low level of assets, coupled with low returns. The poor have very few assets beyond their own labour, which is inevitably spent in tedious, back-breaking, low paid work. They often possess little or no land and also tend to lack education, skills and good health. In addition, the poor have limited access to such public assets as community infrastructure, basic services and government schemes. It is seen that rural poverty is becoming increasingly concentrated among households whose primary source of income is casual labour, both in agriculture as well as the rural non-farm sector. 9. As in other parts of India, land is the most crucial asset for the rural poor. It has been seen that poverty falls as land ownership rises. However, over the years, per capita availability of land has...

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