Routing Protocols Essay

2425 words - 10 pages

Part 4. Routing Protocols
1. Routing for Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) Routing in MANETs is difficult since mobility causes frequent network topology changes and requires more robust and flexible mechanisms to search for and maintain routes. When the network nodes move, the established paths may break and the routing protocols must dynamically search for other feasible routes. With a changing topology, even maintaining connectivity is very difficult. In addition, keeping the routes loop free is more difficult when the hosts move. Besides handling the topology changes, routing protocols in MANETs must deal with other constraints, such as low bandwidth, limited energy consumption, and high ...view middle of the document...

1.2 Proactive Routing Protocols As stated earlier, proactive routing protocols maintain routes to all destinations, regardless of whether or not these routes are needed. In order to maintain correct route information, a node must periodically send control messages. Therefore, proactive routing protocols may waste bandwidth since control messages are sent out unnecessarily when there is no data traffic. The main advantage of this category of protocols is that hosts can quickly obtain route information and quickly establish a session. For example, GSR introduced below is a proactive routing protocol. Global State Routing (GSR) is based on the Link State (LS) routing method. In the LS routing method, each node floods the link state information into the whole network (global flooding) once it realises that links change between itself and its neighbours. The link state information includes the delay to each of its neighbours. A node will know the whole topology when it obtains all link information. LS routing works well in networks

with static topologies. When links change quickly, however, frequent global flooding will inevitably lead to huge control overhead. Unlike the traditional LS method, GSR does not flood the link state packets. Instead, every node maintains the link state table based on up-to-date LS information received from neighbouring nodes, and periodically exchanges its LS information with its neighbours only (no global flooding). Before sending an LS packet, a node assigns the LS packet a unique sequence number to identify the newest LS information. LS information is disseminated as the LS packets with larger sequence numbers replace the ones with smaller sequence numbers. The convergence time required to detect a link change in GSR is shorter than in the Distributed Bellman-Ford (DBF) protocol. The convergence time in GSR is O(D*I) where D is the diameter of the network and I is the link state update interval. The convergence time is normally smaller than O(N*I) in DBF, where N is the number of nodes in the networks and I is the update interval. Since the global topology is maintained in every node, preventing routing loops is simple and easy. The drawbacks of GSR are the large size of the update messages, which consume a considerable amount of bandwidth, and the latency of the LS information propagation, which depends on the LS information update interval time. ``Fisheye'' technology can be used to reduce the size of update messages. In this case, every node maintains highly accurate network information about the immediate neighbouring nodes, with progressively fewer details about farther nodes.

1.3 Reactive Routing Protocols Reactive routing protocols can dramatically reduce routing overhead because they do not need to search for and maintain the routes on which there is no data traffic. This property is very appealing in the resource-limited environment. 1.3.1 Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) The Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)...

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