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"Einstein" redirects here. For other uses, see Einstein (disambiguation).
Albert Einstein in 1921
14 March 1879
Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire
18 April 1955 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, United States
Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, United Kingdom, United States
United States (1940–1955)
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For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics. Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation"), he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory within physics.
Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of...