BA CHAPTER 13: MOTIVATING PERFORMANCE
Motivating for Performance
* Understanding why people do things is not an easy task
* Predicting their response to management’s latest productivity program is harder.
* forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts
* highly motivated people, with adequate ability and understanding of the job, will be highly productive
* To be effective motivators managers must know what behaviors they want to motivate people to exhibit
* Managers must motivate people to
* Join the organization
* Remain in the organization
* Come to work regularly
* Exhibit good ...view middle of the document...
* Set goals for yourself don’t just try
* Statement of purpose for yourself comprising:
* Inspiring distant vision
* A mid distant goal
* A near term objectives to start working immediately.
* You can articulate your goal
* Apply SMART
* The law of effect states that behavior that is followed by positive consequences will likely be repeated
* This concept led to countless investigations into the effects of positive consequences called reinforcers
* Reinforcers are positive consequences that motivate behavior
* Four key consequences of behavior either encourage or discourage people’s behavior in the future
* Positive reinforcement – applying consequences that increases the likelihood that the person will repeat the behavior that led to it. Ex. Compliments, letters of recommendations, favorable performance evaluations and pay raises.
* Negative reinforcement – Removing or withholding an undesirable consequence. Ex. Taking employees/ students off probation bec of improved performance.
* Punishment - occurs when an aversive consequence is administered. Ex. Criticizing or shouting at employees, assigning an unappealing task, sending working home without pay.
* Can involve threat of punishment by not delivering punishment.
* Actual delivery of the aversive consequence
* Managers gives this when people expects him to give it and they actually concern themselves with following company policy and procedure.
* Extinction - occurs by withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence.
* When this occurs motivation is reduced and behavior is eliminated.
* Ex. Not giving praise for job well done, forgetting to say thank you for a favor, setting impossible performance goals.
* Extinction may be used to end undesirable behavior.
* The first two positive and negative reinforcement is good for the person receiving it. Gains something or avoids something negative.
* The last two provides negative outcomes for the person receiving it.
(MIS) Managing rewards and punishments
* Giving rewards to good performance is essential.
* Negative behavior: punishing for absenteeism may encourage them to actually not go to work anymore.
* Multi-tasking – slows down the brain’s efficiency and can contribute to mistakes. Our brain cannot concentration on two tasks at once. It needs time to switch.
* To use reinforcement effectively, managers must identify which kinds of behaviors they will reinforce and which they discourage.
* The reward system has to support the firm’s strategy, defining people’s performance in ways that pursue strategic objectives. Ex. Rewarding employees.
* Managers should be creative in their reinforcement.
* Innovative managers use non-monetary rewards including: intellectual challenge, greater responsibility, autonomy,...