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Reserche Essay

2852 words - 12 pages

جامعة الدمام
عمادة السنة التحضيرية والدراسات المساندة
قسم تطوير الذات

بحث بعنوان :

معدلات التدهور في صحة مرضى نقص المناعة المكتسبة (الإيدز)

إعداد :

عبدالعزيز الملحم
ماهر سراج محمد الخطيب
هشام العرفج

إشراف :

الدكتور علي الورداني

1435-1436
ملخص البحث

الفصل الأول

خـلفية الدراسة

المقدمة :

لله سبحانه وتعالى حكم كثيرة في الأرض ,والله تعالى انزل البلاء على العباد مثل الكوارث الطبيعية والأمراض. وسنركز اكثر على الامراض في هذا البحث وبالأخص مرض نقص المناعة المكتسبة او مايسمى بالايدز.
ويعد مرض نقص المناعة المكتسبة (الايدز) واحداً من أخطر المشاكل الصحية التي تواجه عالمنا اليوم، حيث يتصدر الإيدز كافة الأمراض ...view middle of the document...

2- بيان أهمية توعية المجتمع من المرض.
3- بيان الأثر النفسي على المرضى بسبب المرض.

فروض البحث :

يمكن صياغة الفرضيات التالية كإجابة محتملة لأسئلة البحث :

1- يوجد تأثير سلبي على المصابين بمرض نقص المناعة على صحتهم النفسية.
2- هل معدلات حالة تدهور مرضى نقص المناعة أكثر من حالات تحسنهم ؟
حدود البحث :

1- الحدود المكانية : مدينة الدمام و محافظة الخبر.
2- الحدود الزمانية : طبق هذا البحث في تاريخ 24/04 من عام 1435.
3- الحدود الموضوعية : مرض الإيدز-تأثيره على الجهاز المناعي.

مصطلحات البحث :

ويتبنى البحث المصطلحات التالية :

مرض نقص المناعة المكتسبة :
مرض يصيب الجهاز المناعي البشري ويسببه فيروس نقص المناعة البشرية وتؤدي الإصابة بهذه الحالة المرضية إلى التقليل من فاعلية الجهاز المناعي للإنسان بشكل تدريجي ليترك المصابين به عرضة للإصابة بأنواع من العدوى الانتهازية والأورام. وينتقل فيروس نقص المناعة إلى المصاب عن طريق حدوث اتصال مباشر بين غشاء مخاطي أو مجرى الدم وبين سائل جسدي يحتوي على هذا الفيروس مثل:الدم أو السائل المنوي للرجل أو السائل المهبلي للأنثى أو المذي أو لبن الرضاعة الطبيعية. من ثم، يمكن أن ينتقل هذا الفيروس من خلال الاتصال الجنسي الغير آمن سواء الشرجي أو المهبلي أو الفموي، أو من خلال عملية نقل الدم، أو من خلال إبر الحقن الملوثة بهذا الفيروس، أو يمكن أن ينتقل من الأم إلى جنينها خلال مرحلة الحمل أو الولادة أو الرضاعة أو من خلال أي عملية تعرض أخرى لأي من السوائل الجسدية سالفة الذكر. ويعتبر مرض الإيدز حاليًا جائحة (من الأمراض الوبائية والمتفشية). وقد ظهر أن ما يزيد عن ثلاثة أرباع هذه الوفيات تحدث في ذلك الجزء من القارة الأفريقية الذي يقع جنوب الصحراء الكبرى." من ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة"
الإيدز :
هو المصطلح العالمي لمرض نقص المناعة المكتسبة.
الفصل الثاني

الأدب النظري والدراسات السابقة

الأدب النظري:-
يقوم البحث الحالي بدراسة معدل تدهور صحة مرضى الإيدز وقد يأثر هذا التدهور على حالة المريض الاجتماعية والنفسية, فيجب على المجتمع التوعية بمراعات حالة هؤلاء المرضى وتوعية الناس بكيفية التعايش معهم وتعليمهم الطرق اللازمة لتجنب الإصابة بمرض الإيدز وطرق انتقال المرض.

أولا:- مرض الايدز:-

ما هو الايدز:
الايدز هو مرض مزمن يشكل خطرا على الحياة، وهو ناجم عن فيروس يسبب فشلا أو قصوراً في الجهاز المناعي لدى البشر (فيروس نقص المناعة البشري / او: فيروس العوز المناعي البشري). او باختصار: فيروس الايدز. فيروس الايدز يفقد الجسم قدرته على محاربة ومقاومة الفيروسات، الجراثيم والفطريات من خلال اصابته للجهاز المناعي، فيجعل الجسم عرضة للإصابة بأمراض مختلفة.

يعرض الايدز (فيروس نقص المناعة البشري) جسم الانسان للإصابة بأنواع معينة من السرطان والالتهابات، التي كان بإمكانه (الجسم)، بشكل عام، محاربتها والتغلب عليها، مثل الالتهاب الرئوي والتهاب السحايا.

يشكل مصطلح "نقص المناعة المكتسب" (او: متلازمة العوز المناعي المكتسب)، تعريفا لمرض الايدز في مراحله الاكثر تقدماً. نحو 39.5 مليون انسان في مختلف انحاء العالم مصابون اليوم بفيروس الايدز. بالرغم من الجهود القائمة على محاربة الايدز في عدة دول من العالم، الا ان مدى انتشار الايدز ما زال على حاله، بل ازداد في دول اخرى. ويكمن الحل لمنع استمرار انتشار الايدز في: الوقاية، العلاج والتوعية.

أعراض الايدز:
تختلف أعراض الايدز من حالة الى اخرى، وطبقا للمرحلة العينية من مرض...

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