Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development
Over the years teen pregnancies have seemed to increase higher, but girls of African American and Hispanic/ Latino ethnicities seem to have the highest pregnancy rate. Also African Americans and Hispanic/Latino have higher school dropout and economic disadvantages. Adolescent mothers also seem to have a higher risk of having depression or parental stress, rather then adult mothers. The mother’s depression can affect the child, and the child may be at risk of depression or development delays in life. If the mother seems to be having signs of depression they may ...view middle of the document...
Their mental health will be better and they have a higher chance of graduation high school, which will be better for the baby. A mother and baby having family and friend support are less likely to have depression later in life. Younger mothers though don’t have many friends, because it is not social acceptable to have a child at that age. As a result, mothers become depressed, because they don’t have the social support they need.
According to Milan (2004) Research suggest ethic minority adolescent parents may experience even more adversities that their white peers. It is also shown African American or Hispanic/Latinos are the ones having children at a younger age. They also seem to have economic disadvantages, high levels of depression, and lower grades in school. Ethic minority young mothers also seem to have lower social support, which can cause depression. Also a father figure may not be involved, which is harder for the mother. Not having that social support can cause the mother to feel hopeless and not want to take care of her child. The child may have emotional and mental problems later in life if their father chooses not to be in their life.
In this study there was 180 African American and Latino/Hispanic adolescent mothers in northeast urban areas. The group was chosen based on age, race/ethnicity, school status, and where they lived from the Women, Infant and Children Office. All girls were under the age of 18 and attending a public school. The test was conducted when the infant was 6 months (wave 1), 1 year (wave 2), and 18 months (wave 3). Interviews where done with parent consent and either completed in their home or school.
Parenting stress was reported on a Likert Scale from one to five, five being the highest stress level. The parent stress scores from wave 1 were the only ones used for the study. The multidemsional scale of perceived social support was used for perceived social support. It measured support from family, friends, and a significant other. A scale from one to seven was used and scored from only wave 1 was used for it. For child development the Brigance Screens were used for the study. Wave 1 was used for the control variable and wave 3 for the outcome. Maternal Depression used the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Survey, using a one to four scale. Wave 1 for this was also a...