Research Project Level 5 Essay

4832 words - 20 pages

Care Essay

The different agencies responsible in identifying levels of health and disease in communities are the following: World Health Organisation, Health Protection Agency and the Primary Care Trusts. This three may have different specifics in terms of their objectives and targets but they are commonly working on towards a safer and health risk-free environment.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) functions are mainly in providing support and services to the different health care institutions around the globe especially those who primarily need it e.g. low performing health care providers on a per country basis, newly debilitated areas and the likes. The organisation also joins ...view middle of the document...

They must do their best to reach out to every single resident and provide them the care that they need since this is seen as one of the health seeker's privilege. When outbreaks happen PCT is also responsible for identifying the community's status.

Word count: 351

Answer 1 - 1.2

An epidemiological study last 2007 in Africa showed a significant increase in incidence rate as seen in Appendix A table 1 [page 20]. Over all, from the year 2006 to 2007, there was an additional 0.9% of cases added leaving the incidence data markedly higher than the number of prevalence cases. The 2015 target prevalence rate was set to 384 per 100,000 population. The current surveillance displayed 692 cases per 100,000 population. The number of deaths related to the TB disease even displayed a more erratic rate. Mortality rate was 230 per 100,000 population per year with a target number of 39 for this coming 2015. This means that Africa still has a long way to go in reducing the number of cases (deaths and incidence), eight years might be substantially enough from detection to management process but all are still in the hands of the health care providers, organisations and programmes involved with it.

Referring still to table 1, multidrug-resistant TB cases' percentage is at the same time spiking together with the incidence rate. The only positive projection showed by the tables is the DOTC case detection rates which have been meeting the desired goals of the anti-TB programme. Additionally, there is a steady increase in new sputum smear (positive/negative), new extrapulmonary, relapse and retreatment notifications. On table 2 [page 20], the unfavourable outcomes percentages resulted to death, failures, defaults, transfers and non evaluation. Large rates of new sputum smear positive cases lead to death, defaults, transfers and nonevalutaion while new sputum smear negative cases lead to huge number of deaths and defaults. Same thing goes with new extrapulmonary cases but few cases resulted to failure alone. Retreatment cases were also high which resulted to all unpleasant factors. The DOTS coverage have been performing well since 2003 and above, but treatment plans did not go well throughout the significant period although case detection rates were all good. The problem significantly lies on the treatment management and behaviour. Case detection rates were already found to be greatly improved which means areas on management plans are now becoming the eye of objectives.

Diabetes rates in Africa weren't that high (see Appendix B image 1 page 21). Table 3 Appendix B shows the population sample for the diabetes case prediction. Only 3-5% in ages 35-64 years old is affected although this can increase significantly or double up in several years. Africa did not either enter the roll of leading countries who are likely to be part of the world's highest diabetes cases for both year 2000 and 2030 prediction. Compared to the TB disease rates, diabetes is more likely...

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