According to Webster (1985), to research is to search or investigate exhaustively. He also states that it is, “A careful or diligent search, studious inquiry aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts.”
The piece being critically reviewed is an article by Dr Ann Seed (1995), “Crossing the Boundaries – Experiences of neophyte nurses.”
Readers sometimes assume that if a report was accepted for publication; the study must be sound (Polit & Beck 2004), unfortunately this is not always true. In order to determine the quality of the work, a critical review is needed. This work will use the Model for Critical Appraisal of Studies by B Roe (1993).
The Introduction ...view middle of the document...
Most quantitative research pieces have aims and objectives, some qualitative do not, and have themes to explore instead (Polit & Beck2004). According to Justham (2007), a good introduction to research should have purpose described; in this piece there was not, so the relevance of this study is not made clear either in the introduction or within the title.
Faucault (1976) and Elias (1978) state that boundaries are breached during hospitalization, Seed felt this important enough to warrant research. A qualitative approach may be used when little is known about a subject and the researcher may have few pre-conceived ideas about the subject or about the data which will be gained. The aim is more likely to be inductive (that is, moving towards theory) rather than testing theory (Roberts & Wilson 2002). By using a qualitative method, Seed could investigate and conclude using the collection of data in which to base a theory or derive a conclusion, known as empirical evidence (Sommer & Sommer 1991). The research is described as having a longitudinal perspective which enables the reflection of the neophytes’ views changing with passage of time (Seed1994).
Seed explains that the students’ views were collected by participant observation and interview, and analyzed by employing grounded theory.
Grounded theory strategies were first reported by the sociologists Glaser & Strauss in 1967. They developed the GT research method in an attempt to bridge what they perceived as a gap between theory and research. GT emphasizes the process of generating theory by systematically collecting and analyzing data concurrently. As the study is exploring the feelings and thoughts of the students’ experiences and these specifications are immeasurable, a quantitative method would not investigate what the researcher wanted to reveal and would not be appropriate but a qualitative methodology is appropriate with the use of grounded theory, it is worth mentioning that Qualitative methodology is sometimes criticized for being unscientific (Cassell et al 2005). Seed states the methodology used in the study are described elsewhere, so the reader can only assume which methodology the author chose.
“A sample is a finite part of a statistical population whose properties are studied
to gain information about the whole,” according to Webster (1985). Seed does not explain how and why the cohorts were chosen. The reader can assume Seed used ‘neophyte’ nurses so she could see how they progressed throughout their training. There is no explanation of why she chose the size (23) or why uses the amount of males/females that she did. There are no discussions regarding the recruitment
process. It is not unusual for researchers to have different opinions as to
sample size calculations; the process should always be reported. This allows the
reader to make their own judgments as to whether to accept the researchers’
assumptions (Bartlett et al 2001)....