Meanwhile, Rizal was arrested in transit to Cuba and ordered returned to Fort Santiago in Manila to stand trial for rebellion, sedition and illicit association. He was tried on December 26, found guilty and condemned to death. Jose Rizal was shot by a firing squad on December 30, 1896. Rizal's execution gave the rebellion fresh determination.
The Katipunan was divided between factions loyal to Bonifacio and Aguinaldo. Due to his successes in battle, Aguinaldo was elected to replace Bonifacio. Bonifacio withdrew his supporters and the two factions began to fight. Bonifacio was arrested, tried and executed on May 10, 1897 by Aguinaldo's order.
Aguinaldo's forces were driven from Cavite ...view middle of the document...
Main article: Pact of Biak-na-Bato
Spanish pressure intensified, eventually forcing Aguinaldo's forces to retreat to the mountains. Emilio Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. Under the pact, Aguinaldo effectively agreed to end hostilities and dissolve his government in exchange for amnesty and "$800,000 (Mexican)" (Aguinaldo's description of the amount) as an indemnity. The documents were signed on December 14 and 15, 1887. On December 23, Aguinaldo and other Katipunan officials departed for Hong Kong to enter voluntary exile. $400,000, representing the first installment of the indemnity, was deposited into Hong Kong banks. While in exile, Aguinaldo reorganized his revolutionary government into the "Supreme Council of the Nation".
One revolutionary general who remained in the Philippines, Francisco Makabulos, established a Central Executive Committee to serve as a provisional revolutionary government "until a general government of the Republic in these islands shall again be established." Meanwhile, Spanish officials continued to arrest and imprison Filipinos suspected of having been involved in the rebellion. The consequence of this disregard of the pact by both sides was the resurgence of the revolution.
In April 1898, war broke out between Spain and the United States. In the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, the American Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey engaged and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Squadron, and blockaded Manila. Dewey provided transport to return Aguinaldo to the Philippines. Aguinaldo promptly resumed command of revolutionary forces and besieged Manila.
The Philippine Revolution
The Biak-na-Bato Republic of 1897
With almost all of Cavite in the hands of the Spaniards, [ Governor General ] Primo de Rivera issued another decree extending the benefit of his pardon beyond May 17, 1897. His purpose was to win over the Filipinos to his policy of attraction. A few took advantage of the governor's decree, while the rest continued their resistance against the enemy.Aguinaldo, meanwhile was in Talisay, Batangas where he had established his headquarters. The enemy surrounded the area in the hope of capturing him, but he slipped through the Spanish cordon on June 10 and proceeded with his men to the hilly region of Morong ( Rizal ). With 500 picked men, he crossed the Pasig to Malapad-na-Bato, near Guadalupe, and from here he secretly passed through San Juan del Monte and Montalban, and on to Mount Puray. After a well-earned rest, Aguinaldo and his men proceeded to Biak-na-Bato, San Miguel de Mayumo, where he established his headquarters.News of Aguinaldo's arrival at Biak-na-Bato reached the towns of Central Luzon. As a consequence, armed men from Pangasinan, Zambales, and Ilocos provinces, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija, renewed their armed resistance against the enemy. From Biak-na-Bato, Aguinaldo and his men joined...