School of Nursing & Allied Health Sciences
INTAKE: JANUARY 2012
COURSE: BACHELOR OF NURSING SCIENCE WITH HONOURS
COURSE TITLE: RENAL NURSING
NO | TITLE | PAGES |
1 | INTRODUCTION * URINARY SYSTEM * WHAT DO NORMAL KIDNEYS DO? | 3 |
2 | RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY * HEAMODIALYSIS * PERITONEAL DIALYSIS | 4 - 7 |
3 | RENAL TRANSPLANTATION * TRANSPLANT PROCEDURE * TISSUE TYPING * CONTRAINDICATION OF TRANSPLANTATION * TYPES OF TRANSPLANT * DONOR WORK UP * RECIPIENT WORK UP | 8 - 14 |
4 | PRE OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT | 14 - 15 |
5 | INTRA OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT | 16 |
6 | POST OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT | 16 - 17 |
7 | ...view middle of the document...
* Inadequate production of hormones.
* Lack of vitamin D – Bone disease
* Lack of Erythropoietin – Anaemia
There are two measures that can help to slow down the rate of kidney:
* Control of blood pressure by restricting low salt diet and observation of high blood pressure medications.
* Protein restriction diet by reducing the intake of meat and soya products.
When the kidneys function falls to about 10%. Then haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is required to sustain life.
RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY
Haemodialysis removes blood from the body and sends it across a special filter with solutions. The filter helps remove harmful substances. The blood is then returned to the body. If you have haemodialysis, your health care team will need a way to get to the blood in your blood vessels. This is called access. You may need this for a little while (temporary) or for a long time (permanent). Temporary access involves putting a hollow tube (called a catheter) into a large vein, usually in your neck, chest, or leg near the groin. This is most often done in emergency situations for short periods of time. However, some catheters can be used for weeks or even months. Permanent access is created by surgically joining an artery to a vein, usually in the arm. There are two ways to do this:
* An artery and a vein are directly connected to each other. After a few months, they form a connection called a fistula (an arteriovenous fistula, or AVF). This type has a lower risk of infections and lasts longer.
* A human-made bridge (arteriovenous graft or AVG) can also be used to connect the artery and vein. An AVG can be used for dialysis within several weeks.
* When you have dialysis, one or two needles are placed into the access area.
The peritoneum is a thin membrane lining the abdominal cavity with its organs like the liver, gall bladder, gut, female reproductive tract, etc. There are numerous tiny blood vessels in the peritoneum, making it suitable for filtering blood. A small incision is made in the abdomen, and a catheter, which is a small flexible tube, is inserted into the peritoneal cavity, which is the space lined by the peritoneum. The dialysate is then allowed to flow into and out of the abdominal cavity for a specified period of time, during which the abdomen may feel fuller than usual. With the movement of blood through the blood vessels of the peritoneum, waste products and excess fluid move out of the blood and into the dialysate, which is removed from the abdominal cavity at the end of the dialysis. There are two main schedules of peritoneal dialysis:
* Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
* Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD).
CAPD involves filling the abdominal cavity with dialysate, leaving it in the abdominal cavity, and later draining away the dialysate through the effect of gravity. Three or...