Reliability and Validity in Personality Testing
Psychological tests are often used in the selection of projective personnel (Anastasia & Urbina, 1997). The idea is that by using the scientific approach to personality and emotional intelligence testing in hiring, the employers will be able to increase the number of successful employees (Beaz lll, 2013). “Personality refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits”, which in relationship to a person’s projected Emotional Intelligence (EI) may lead to matching the right person to the right job. Job proficiency tests are used to select candidates for employment and are ...view middle of the document...
In this paper, I will examine how personality tests are constructed, how to determine reliability and validity, as well as to how personality tests can be projected.
The construction of personality testing
A factor analysis can be done to establish construct validity by identifying and defining psychological traits. It is a refined statistical technique to analyze the interrelationships of behavior data. For example, a number of tests can be given to an x amount of people. Effective placement implies that traits that are irrelevant to the job should not be considered as determining factors. This is an urgent matter because of the concern for adverse effects on culturally and educationally disadvantaged minorities. For example, a number of tests can be given to an x amount of people. Comparison of the data may reveal cluster locations of common traits. For instance, vocabulary and sentence completion tests may highly correlate with, and infer a verbal comprehension factor. Thus, the number of variables can be reduced to common traits, resulting in five or six traits to account for correlations between larger numbers of tests. Each person may be evaluated in terms of these clustered common traits. This correlation is often referred to as the factorial validity of a test. Ratings and criterion measures can be used to explore the factorial composition of a test and to define the common traits it measures (Anastasia & Urbina, 1997).
The means of determining reliability
Whether an assessment has reliability depends on different factors or variants, such as the environment, the instructions, the time limits and the rapport with the examiner (Anastasia & Urbina, 1997). The idea is to obtain consistent results regardless of who is administering the test or interpreting the results. The same person could take the same test several times and generate the same results. Any differences in the results should be due to the error variance, which includes any condition that is irrelevant to the purpose of the test. Since the variability is an intrinsic property of all behavior, some fluctuation could be expected and classified under error variance as well. Test reliability indicates the extent to which individual differences are due to ‘true’ differences or ‘error variance’. Testing the reliability of an assessment is paramount to the empirical value of the test, with regards to ethical and scientific standards. Far-reaching consequences for the patient may potentially be damaging with the misuse or abuse of psychological assessments. Not one test is 100 % reliable, and therefore all tests should be accompanied by statement of reliability, with specifications of its characteristics of the sample and an explanation of how the reliability was tested (Anastasia & Urbina, 1997).
The correlation coefficient expresses the degree of correspondence between two sets of scores and is used to express various types of reliability. The reliability coefficient can be...