Why do parents become involved in their children’s education?
We begin our review of non-economic literature by presenting theories of why
parents of school-aged children become involved in their child’s education.
What are the relevant process variables according to research in psychology,
sociology, and education, that motivate the decision by parents to become
involved, and why does this involvement positively inﬂuence educational
According to the psychological model proposed by Hoover-Dempsey &
Sandler , three (dynamic) constructs primarily inﬂuence parents’ involvement decisions:
1. The parents’ understanding of their role in the child’s life: what
they believe ...view middle of the document...
Although results vary depending on the speciﬁc context examined, a general ﬁnding is that all constructs
appear to make signiﬁcant contributions to explaining involvement [Reed
9et al., 2000]; however, further results of these empirical studies have led to
an important distinction of mechanisms guiding involvement at home and
at school [Deslandes & Bertrand, 2004]. Speciﬁcally, for home-based involvement, eﬃcacy seems to play a pre-eminent role, while for school-based
involvement, invitations from teachers and children provide the biggest contribution in explaining levels of involvement [Deslandes & Bertrand, 2004;
Green et al., 2007].
If parental involvement is instrumental to child’s outcomes, a psychological theory of parental involvement must also address the reason why
parental involvement can positively inﬂuence the child’s achievement.
The model by Hoover-Dempsey & Sandler [1995, 1997] allows for three
primary mechanisms through which parents, by increasing their involvement
in education, can bear an inﬂuence on children’s educational outcomes: modeling, reinforcement, and direct instruction. Modeling theory predicts that
children will emulate their parents’ behavior; by devoting interest and time