Regents Review: Cold War (1945-1989)
• United Nations: After World War II ended, nations joined in forming the United Nations. The organization’s purpose includes peacekeeping, fighting hunger and disease and promoting education.
• Although allies during World War II, the United States and Soviet Union entered into a period of distrust and competition after the War. Because the two never fought directly, this was known as the Cold War.
• Countries in Eastern Europe (and the eastern half of Germany) fell under the control of the Communist rule of the U.S.S.R after World War II. Winston Churchill used the phrase Iron Curtain to describe the divide between the Capitalist West and ...view middle of the document...
The U.S. set up a naval blockade around Cuba and the Soviets backed down. The two sides came to the brink of nuclear war, but diplomacy ultimately prevailed.
o Vietnam War (1964-1975). Vietnam was also divided between a Communist North and Capitalist South. The U.S. felt that if Vietnam became Communist, the rest of Southeast Asia would follow; this theory was known as the domino theory. President Johnson (LBJ) received permission to send troops in the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave him enormous powers to wage war. The U.S. public was split between hawks (favored war) and doves (those against). Television images of U.S. casualties led to student protests and the war became extremely unpopular. President Nixon tried to turn over control of the war to the South Vietnamese (in the process known as Vietnamization) and pulled U.S. troops out. The North overran the South in 1975; Vietnam is still a united Communist country today. In a reaction to the wide power given to LBJ, Congress passed the War Powers Act in 1973, which reduced the President’s power to wage war.
• On the home front, people became paranoid about Communists in America. The House Un-American...