1. What does the acronym SMART signify for measurement? Why are these characteristics important?
As mentioned in the textbook, good data and good measurement system are the basis for the effective quality control as well as for quality improvement. Thus, a good measure is relatively important to quality management. The acronym SMART represents simple, measurable, actionable, related (to customer and optional requirements), and timely. A good measurement should be:
1. cost effective and easy to obtain,
2. have a clear and unambiguous definition of measured objective,
3. clearly related to what is important to both external and internal customer,
4. taken at critical ...view middle of the document...
* Internal failure costs: Costs of unsatisfactory quality found before the delivery of a product to the customer. These include the scrap and rework costs, downgrading costs arising from selling a product at a lower price because it does not meet specifications, and cost arising from the process failures such as unplanned machine downtime and unplanned equipment repair.
* External failure costs: Costs incurred after poor-quality products reach the customer. For example, while customer complaints and return the product, a company has to bear transportation cost, or replacement a new product to its customers.
3. What does the term “in statistical control” mean?
In a peak performance study, we must ensure that the variation in the process is due only to common causes and does not include any special causes. When the variation in the process is due to common causes alone, it is in statistical control. A practical definition of statistical control is that both the process averages and variance are constant over time.
1. Using the data in Table 8.8, what is the average percentage of infections?
According to the Table 8.8, the average percentage of infections is 67.94% (55 / 8,095).
2. Construct an appropriate control chart, compute the upper and lower control limits, plot the data on a control chart, and determine if the process is in statistical control. Based on your analysis, what action, if any, should management take?
Since the population for each month is not constant, I select p-chart to calculate the approximate upper and lower control limits. The related control chart is as following:
Based on the control chart, the percent of infection in several months are relatively higher than the others. The management should setup the rule not only for the surgery team member but also for the preparation for the patients.
Before the surgery operate: