Define reliability and validity
Then use a study to determine how reliable and valid it is, justify answer
Reliability is the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results.
Validity refers to how well a test measures what it is purported to measure.
Did more than one person record and interpret the data, and do they agree?
If you use the same methods again in the same situation, do you get the same results?
No, when the experiment was replicated (better controlled) many of the errors in peoples recalling was not found even though the same kinds of errors remained.
* Did not ask ...view middle of the document...
* Subtleties and complexities about the research subjects and/or topic are discovered that are often missed by more positivistic enquiries.
* Data usually are collected from a few cases or individuals so findings cannot be generalized to a larger population. Findings can however be transferable to another setting.
Limitations of Qualitative Research
* -Research quality is heavily dependent on the individual skills of the researcher and more easily influenced by the researcher's personal biases and idiosyncrasies.
* Rigor is more difficult to maintain, assess, and demonstrate.
* The volume of data makes analysis and interpretation time consuming.
* It is sometimes not as well understood and accepted as quantitative research within the scientific community
* The researcher's presence during data gathering, which is often unavoidable in qualitative research, can affect the subjects' responses.
* Issues of anonymity and confidentiality can present problems when presenting findings
* Findings can be more difficult and time consuming to characterize in a visual way.
Define the three types of methods that can be used in qualitative research
Asking a participant questions…
Observing participants’ behaviour.
There is no manipulation of an independent variable and researchers are therefore unable to draw conclusions regarding the causes of what they are observing.
Types of observation:
- Covert and overt – covert: the participants do not know they are being observed. overt: the participants know they are observed.
- Participant and non-participant observations.
- Naturalistic and controlled observations
CASE STUDIES: A case study involves an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.
A case study is one type of observational data collection technique in which one individual is studied in-depth in order to identify behavioral, emotional, and/or cognitive qualities that are universally true, on average, of others. Case studies often include face-to-face interviews, paper and pencil tests, and more.
Define triangulation. Make a chart with the 4 types establishing differences between them
Triangulation involves the use of different approaches to the gathering of data in a single study in order to improve the trustworthiness of the conclusions.
Data triangulation | Researcher triangulation | Theoretical triangulation | Methodological...