PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND DISEASES
BY: Vivian Alfonso
Professor: Desra Hohlbein
February 20, 2015
The biopsychology of Psychiatric disorders (disorders of psychological function sufficiently severe to require treatment). One of the main difficulties in studying or treating the psychiatric disorders is that they are difficult to diagnose. Because they cannot identify the specific brain pathology associated with various disorders, their diagnosis usually rests entirely on the patients symptoms. The diagnosis is guided by the DSM-IV-TR (the current edition of the Diagnostic and statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Associations. I will be discussing ...view middle of the document...
Scientists believe that Schizophrenia, like many other conditions may result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The symptoms associated with Schizophrenia are typically separated into two categories:
Positive symptoms (Extra feelings or behaviors that are usually not present such as:
1. Believing that what other people are saying is not true (delusions).
2. Hearing, seeing feeling, or smelling things that others do not experience (hallucination).
3. Disorganized speech or behavior.
Negative symptoms a lack of behaviors or feelings that usually is present such as:
1. Losing interest in everyday activities, like bathing, grooming or getting dressed.
2. Feeling out of touch with other people, family or friends.
3. Lack of feeling or emotion (apathy).
4. Having little emotion or inappropriate feelings in certain situations.
5. Having less ability to experience pleasure.
Schizophrenia affects different people differently and symptoms can vary from person to person. Over the last 30 years, there have been a number of medication options developed for people who suffer with Schizophrenia. While there is no cure for this condition, medicine has been proven to help with managing symptoms. Today’s Schizophrenia treatment options include medication that only has to be taken once a month instead of every day. Some of the medications used in treatment are: InvegaSustenna, Thorazine, Haldol. The side effects of these medications as all have some side effects such as: dry mouth and voluntary movements among other side effects.
My next disorder that I will discuss is Affective disorders such as Depression and Mania. Depression is an affective disorder (any psychiatric disorder characterized by disturbances of mood or emotion). Mania is also an affective disorder, is in some respects the opposite of depression; it is characterized by the overconfidence, impulsivity, distractibility, and high energy. Affective disorders are also commonly known as mood disorders.
Many depressive patients experience periods of mania. Those who do are said to suffer from bipolar affective disorder. Those depressive patients who do not experience periods of mania are said to suffer from unipolar affective disorder. Depression is often further divided into two categories. Depression triggered by a negative experience such as the death of a loved one, the loss of a good job; is called reactive depression; and depression with no apparent cause is called endogenous depression.
Genetic factors contribute to the differences among people in the development of affective disorders. Twin studies of affective disorders suggest a concordance rate of about 60% for identical twins and 15% for fraternal twins, whether they are reared together or apart. Most of the research on the causal role of experience in affective disorders has focused on the role of stress in the etiology of depression. Indeed, depression is...