Public Management is the transition paradigm between the Traditional Public Administration and Public Value/Governance Network. The key characteristic of public management is based on principal-agent theory, where focuses on the relationship between principal and agents based on economic theory. The basic point is how to choose agent, create incentives structure, market driven, performance/target oriented and how to deal with the diversity of interest.
Another theory that could fit to describe about the New Public Management (NPM) is Street Level Bureaucracy (Lipsky, 1980). This theory mentioned about the policy makers from the bottom-up or interpretive approach. It is a process of ...view middle of the document...
Based on the explanations above, seems like the public management is only about the implementation. However, I would like to argue this statement. In my perspective, the New Public Management emphasizes on policy implementation and policy outcomes. It is in Allison (1983), where the list includes Evaluation Research and Program Management Audit.
To support my argument, there is also opinion that the entire of policy process is starting from setting agenda and formulating ideas, implementing and evaluation policies (Poocharoen, 2013). These staging of policy process have been recognized for many years prior to New Public Management exists, this believe involves bureaucracies in certain level. The argument was build because, first, policy process cannot be divided in practice, it can be described in term of paper, but cannot work in the real life.
As mentioned by Lindbolm (1959) , “end and means are not distinct and the policy developed incrementally.” Second, bureaucracy has an expert and knowledge about the issue discussed; therefore they involve and sometimes initiate the policy. Furthermore, the bureaucrats usually spend longer time of service, thus their knowledge is deeper than the politician.
The sales target in one of automotive companies, is six cars per salesman/month. In the middle of the year, there was crisis as the impact of global financial crisis. The economic was slowing down, therefore the target of six cars per month is hard and unachievable. ...