Psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the original and the short form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)
ágostoN gyollai1, péter simor2, fereNc Köteles3
Institutional Group on Addiction Research, Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary Department of Cognitive Sciences, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary 3 Institute for Health Promotion and Sport Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Budapest, Hungary
Aim: Psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the original and the short form of the Positive and Negative Affect ...view middle of the document...
, 1988; Watson & Pennebaker, 1989; Mackinnon et al., 1999). These constructs can be measured by various questionnaires, however, it became necessary to develop a short questionnaire which allows fast and accurate data collection with reliable and valid psychometric properties. The most widely used questionnaire is the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) (Watson et al., 1988) aiming to explore the positive and negative emotional states, while differentiating the state-like and trait-like characteristics of affectivity. The PANAS contains twenty statements, ten describing positive and ten describing negative personality traits. Subjects should judge on a five-point Likert scale how they feel with regards to each statement. The psychometric properties of the instrument are very good, with Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.85
to 0.90 (Watson, 1988). Over the past decade the PANAS has been adapted to several languages and cultural environments. In these investigations the psychometric properties of the PANAS were also reported to be appropriate (Thompson, 2007). Negative affectivity became one of the most thoroughly investigated personality traits in relation to physical symptoms, while the positive affectivity seems to become an increasingly important factor for studies regarding health protection and well-being (Mackinnon et al., 1999; Diener et al., 2003; Rózsa, 2009). Individuals characterized by higher levels of negative affectivity experience more distress, are more introverted, and are more likely to judge themselves and others negatively (Watson & Clark, 1984; Pennebaker, 1995). It is important to note that state and trait negative affectivity may influence symptom evaluation and affect the report in different ways (Cohen et al., 1995). Individuals with higher positive affectivity scores are characterized by joyful states, have more social interactions and experience less physical symptoms
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(Pettit & Kline, 2001; Diener et al., 2003). Interestingly, positive affectivity as assessed by the PANAS had a stronger negative correlation with depression than with anxiety, while negative affectivity correlated well with both anxiety and depression (Crawford & Henry, 2004). Moreover, linear regression analysis showed that the positive affectivity was responsible for more than two-thirds of the variance of depression, therefore it could be regarded as a better predictor of depressed states compared to negative affectivity. The results suggest that a low positive affectivity score can be interpreted as a direct indicator for depressed mood or depression. Negative and positive affectivity represent two relatively independent dimensions, with correlation coefficients between -0.2 and -0.3. Consequently, low levels of positive affectivity are not equal to high levels of negative affectivity, the studies on the PANAS...