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Psychology Essay

2071 words - 9 pages

Cross sectional study – a study of development in which individuals of different ages are compared at the same time
Longitudinal study – a study of development in which observations of the same individuals are compared at different times of their lives
Prenatal Period – approx. nine months between conception and birth, development depends on genetic contribution from gametes
- x chromosome inactivation is one example of this factor at work, one of two x chromosomes is silenced by women, most of its genes don't synthesize properly; determins whether chromosomes will be inherited from mother or father
- x chromosome inactivation is an example of an epigenetic modificatoin
zygote stage - ...view middle of the document...

F – adopted child turned household to living hell
Nelson – brains development requires stimulation that normal childhood provides
Jean Paiget: cognitive development = maturation process
operation – a logical or mathematical rule that transforms an object or concept into something else;
two processes help a child adapt to his or her environment: assimilation – process by which new information is incorporated into existing schemata and accommodation – process by which existing are changed by new experiences
four periods of cognitive developmental
argues that at key points in an individuals life, the two processes of assimilation and accomodation fail to adjust adequately to the childs knowledge of the world
equilibration – process where schemata is reorganized these key points divided cognitive development into four periods: sensorimotor period – lasts first 2 years of life, marked by orderly progression of increasingly complex cognitive development ranging from reflexes to symbolic thinking. object permanence develops Preoperational Period – represents a four to give year transitional period between first being able to think symbolically and then being able to think logically. Children become increasingly capable of speaking meaningful sentences (2-7) symbols
egocentrism – childs belief that others see the world precisely the way he or she does
taller container contains more water
Conservation – understanding that specific properties of objects remain the same despite apparent changes in the shape or arrangement of those objects
Period of concrete operations – where children come to understand the conservation principle and other conceps such as categorization 7-11, childhood – adolesence
cause and effects
Period of Formal Operations – where individuals first become capable of more formal kinds of abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning
begins at age 11
piaget did not always define terms operationally and experiements lacked proper controls
underestimated ability of children to understand another person's point of view

Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of cognitive development
agreed with Piaget that experience in the physical world is an important factor, disagreed that this is the whole story
culture also plays significant role in cognitive development
children don't learn to think about physical world I na vacuum
ex. child colouring book talking to self, piaget would say this is egocentrism, vygotsky would say that the child is planning
inner speech after age seven
actual development level- stage of cognitive development reached by a child, as demonstrated by the child's ability to solve problems on his or her own
zone of proximal development – increased potential for problem solving and conceptual ability that exists for a child if expert mentoring and guidance are available

infants can't remember because they don't encode objects - “paiget”
Rovee Collier – retention span increases...

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