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Psychological Disorders Essay

1687 words - 7 pages

Page 1

Psychological Disorders and Diseases

Clyna Loveall

PSY 240

October, 14, 2011

Mary Jane Dugan

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Psychological Disorders and Diseases
And treatments

Psychological disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, mania, anxiety disorder, and tourette syndrome create behaviors or psychological patterns that have a disabling effect on normal psychological, behavioral, and physical functions, and are severe enough that psychiatric therapy or drug treatment is required. The assessment and classification of psychological disorders once was thought to be clear cut and the product of a dysfunctional mind. However, with modern research and ...view middle of the document...

These symptoms include delusions, inappropriate affect, hallucinations, incoherent thought, and odd behaviors such as catatonia.
Genetics, also play a roll in the development of schizophrenia along with psychological, neurological, and experiential factors. Studies have shown that in the development of schizophrenia in close biological relatives being passed through genes has about a ten percent probability even though only one percent of the population develops the disorder. In identical twins the probability raises to forty-five percent (Pinel 2009), (Holzman, Matthyse (1990) and Kallman (1946). However, even though certain genes have been linked to the predisposed of schizophrenia, it has yet to be determined exactly what genes or mechanisms contribute to the disorder. However, with the developments that have come from the early theories of schizophrenia many strides have been made in treatments and drug therapies. During the early 1950’s development of one of the first antischizophrentic drugs chlorpromazine, which calms

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and reduced the severity of schizophrenic in some patience became available, however, in the” second week of treatment this drug had the same motor effects similar to the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Reserpine was another early drug treatment it reduced symptoms as well but the side effect is that it produced were a dangerous decline in blood pressure at the doses needed for the treatment” (Pinel 2009) page 458. However, these two early drugs led to the dopamine theory of Schizophrenia which is that “schizophrenia is caused by too much dopamine and, conversely, that antischizophrenic drugs exert their effects by decreasing dopamine levels in the brain by breaking down the synaptic vesicles in which these neurotransmitters are stored and binding the dopamine and blocking the receptors” (Pinel 2009), (Carlsson and Lindqvist 1963) page 458. By the 1970”s Creese, Burt, & Snyder, 1976) discovered that the drug haloperidol binds to the D2 receptors not to the dopamine receptors, revising which, the dopamine theory. In the 1980’s and 1990’s dopamine theory was revised once again stating that the D2 receptors are only a partial factor, there are still other unidentified factors and brain abnormalities caused by schizophrenia, such as damage to the cortical area, enlarged ventricles, damage to the grey matter, subcortical nuclei, and subcortical tracts.

Depression and mania are two other psychological disorders that can adversely effect ones normal psychological, behavioral, and psychical functions when there are intense continuous or reoccurring feeling of despair or sadness which interfere with social obligations, personal hygiene, and daily psychical activities. There are several features associated with effective disorders and clinical depression such as mania, which is when a person experiences extreme highs, leading to impulsive behavior, over confidence,...

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