The theory our learning team is studying is the psychodynamic approach or what is sometimes called psychoanalytic approach. The main contributors to Psychodynamic approaches was the founder Sigmund Freud (1859-1939), Anna Freud (1895-1982) gave significant contribution to the psychodynamics of adolescence and Erik Erickson (1902-1994) called the “new” Freud but with an emphasis on ego (conscious) forces, termed as psychosocial theory (Craig & Dunn, p 11-13). Psychodynamics is the explanation or interpretation (as of behavior or mental states) in terms of mental or emotional forces or processes (www.merriam-webster.com)
Through case study, the psychodynamic approach was developed by Sigmund ...view middle of the document...
268). The id personality called ‘the unconscious” is the personality that focuses on maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain through reflexes and drives such as hunger or bladder tensions (Crain, pp. 268-269). The id concept is impulsive, chaotic and unrealistic.
Although the id stage stands for “the untamed passions” it is balanced out by “reason and good sense” called the ego (Crain, p. 270). The ego evaluates situations comparing them to what has happened in the past and make realistic changes planning for the future. This is what is called “secondary process thinking”. Ego considers the possibilities of the act in question giving the opportunity to make safe and sound choices.
Then there is the superego. Superego is called the “control systems” of the personality. The superego is our standards of what is right and what is wrong. The superego has two parts: the conscience and the ego ideal. The conscience is the part that gives us guilt if we do something we feel is wrong or not within our standards. The ego idea is how we look-up to people and want be like a person such as wanting to be a teacher or doctor because we may have an ideal of “that” or have been impacted by someone that holds that position. Ego idea can also come in forms of wanting to have specific characteristics like having more compassion, strong or impactful (Crain, pp. 270-271).
Freud’s theory dissects the whole person and explains that there is a realistic and a make-believe side of an individual and that the id, ego and superego make up a complex human being (Crain, p. 280). Freud’s daughter Anne Freud elaborated on this area relating to the adolescence stage.
Anne Freud added to...