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Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, And Drugs Essay

1245 words - 5 pages

Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, and Drugs

Psychiatric Disorders, Diseases, and Drugs
Psychiatric disorders and diseases are those conditions defined by the presentation of abnormal behavior. Abnormal behavior is often defined by the mental health profession as behavior which is unusual or atypical. In addition, the individual suffering from a psychiatric disease or disorder may have difficulty with perception of reality or the hindered ability to interpret reality which may cause significant personal distress, self defeating behavior or otherwise dangerous behavior to oneself or others. Often times these behaviors are also socially unacceptable to ones specific culture (Nevid & ...view middle of the document...

Besides these theories surrounding the complexity of schizophrenia brain imaging studies on schizophrenics reveal the disease is connected with brain damage which lends further merit to the idea of early development issues involving the brain (Pinel, 2007).
Affective disorders involving depression, mania or the combination of both as seen in the individual suffering from bipolar affective disorder are psychiatric disorders which have a drastic effect on mood. Various theories related to the affective disorders are open for consideration including the monoamine theory and the diathesis-stress theory (Pinel, 2007).
Under the monoamine theory depression is associated with the under-activity of the serotonergic and noradrenergic synapses (Pinel, 2007, p. 492). While various treatments involving the re-uptake of monoamine have shown benefit in treating depressive illness the support for this theory remains weak as only 25% of those treated with monoamine agonists such as the MAOI’s, tricyclic anti-depressants, SSRI’s and SNRI’s are ultimately helped by these treatments (Pinel, 2007).
The diathesis-stress model of depression suggests a genetic predisposition for depression which then combined with early life stress result in permanent sensitization. In essence this theory implies these early stress triggers result in life-long overreaction habits to mild stressors (Pinel, 2007).
Anxiety disorders are divided into five main classes including generalized anxiety disorder, phobic anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (Pinel, 2007). Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by a general feeling of anxiety in the absence of obvious causal factors. The individual with a phobic disorder has symptoms similar to those of the generalized anxiety disorder with the exception being that the anxiety is able to be linked to specific objects or situations that induce feelings of fear and panic. Panic disorders often go hand-in-hand with one of the two previously mentioned disorders. However, the individual suffering from a panic disorder often experiences extreme and severe physical symptoms of stress and fear (Pinel, 2007). Obsessive compulsive disorder is characterized by the uncontrollable and frequent repetition of anxious thoughts and impulses. The fifth class of anxiety disorders, post traumatic stress disorder, is the result of immense trauma or stress which causes severe psychological distress and impaired function (Pinel, 2007).
The anxiety disorders are most commonly treated with use of benzodiazepines and serotonin agonists in the attempt to reduce the associated anxiety symptoms. Theories on anxiety disorders all suggest these disorders to be experience based and not a direct consequence of faulty neural functioning. However, there may be some genetic component involvement in the development likelihood of the anxiety disorders (Pinel, 2007).
Tourette syndrome is a disorder...

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