STUDENT ID# 23766838
DR. KEITH GOAD
NOVEMBER 05, 2013
As a result of increased corruption in the Catholic Church, a significant number of priests in the 16th century tried to transform Christianity back to its previous Biblical basis and simplicity. Initially, priests channeled much of their efforts in reforming the church, but they discovered that it was very challenging, and the only viable solution was to split completely from the Catholic Church. There were four movements as a result of the reformation events. They include the Anglicans, Lutherans, Reformed Tradition ...view middle of the document...
After publishing his “95 Theses”, the Church authorities troubled Luther, making him to break from the Church in 1519, but he never gave up. He continued to preach and write; enabling him to carry on with reformation.
Reformations’ Theological Issues
Luther identified three major principles that were acknowledged by other Protestant factions. According to the theological premises, all Christians are mandated to believe in the Scripture’s primacy. The idea means that the Biblical literal meaning should be favored in contrast to any learned or conventional readings. Christians are also supposed to reject anything not founded in Scripture. Secondly, justification is by faith alone, and Christians through believing will be saved, and not by their good works; as maintained by the Catholic Church. The other premise is the priesthood of the believer. The idea meant that it was not ideal to consider ordained priests as the “true spiritual estate” members. Priesthood was eliminated by Luther in Protestant Churches though some still make use of pastors or ministers to lead.
Apart from the three principals, the Eucharist sacrament was also elucidated by Luther with reference to consubstantiation. Consubstantiation refers to the assurance that Christ is indeed present in the Eucharist celebration. The belief is also similar to the transubstantiation doctrine. However, in the transubstantiation doctrine, it is believed that wine and bread factually change to the blood and body of Jesus Christ during the Eucharist celebration. In consubstantiation, the belief is that wine and bread do not transform into the body and blood respectively, but they remain wine and bread; including in the presence of Christ. Lutheranism emerged out of Luther’s works. Luther also emphasized on singing of hymns when worshipping, and his teachings, as well as himself were greatly followed by Germans. However, Lutheranism; as a group of Protestantism, was not famous beyond Germany, despite the fact that the majority of Scandinavian Protestants believers are Lutherans. Lutheranism is also practiced in some parts of Australia and America, as well as in places where Germans settled.
Anglicanism was formed as a result of the political war between Henry VIII (1491-1547), the English King, and the papacy. The King’s urge to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, and the need for an heir led to the declaration of Henry in 1534 as England’s Head of the Church. The concerns of Henry’s were more secular than spiritual. He was also not considered a true Protestant as a result of him holding on to the fundamentals of Roman Catholicism. His primary purpose in the Church was to strengthen the position of England in Europe’s’ power structure. As a consequence, the Episcopal Church is more similar in practice, governance, and theology to the Roman Church than the Protestant Church in which the King was greatly linked with. However, the majority of scholars who surrounded Henry...