Project Management Essay

2619 words - 11 pages


Part 1. Systems Theory - 2 -

Part 2. Practical Application - 4 -

1. Describe the project - 4 -

2. Interdependence of systems - 5 -

3. Management tools - 6 -

4. The influence of external environment - 6 -

Part 3. Conclusion - 7 -

References - 8 -

Part 1. Systems Theory
A system is a set of things that are related with each other in some ways. The behavior or action of one member will influence other members' behaviors or actions. In addition, systems could be closed or open. A closed system is a linear system, which has some boundaries and the cause and effect could be predicted. Whereas for an open system, it's very dynamic and complex that inputs ...view middle of the document...

There are three systems approach including failure approach, hard systems approach and soft systems approach. In addition, different methods are relevant while confronting with different situations. For instance, when the situation is not too confusing and if you can get a clear and logical picture of what is involved, the hard systems approach could be very useful. (Hamilton, 1997)
Another approach for systemic analysis of general systems theory is to construct a hierarchy of levels according to Boulding's classification model, which is very detailed (Boulding 1956, 202).
1. Static structure. It also called the level of frameworks, for instance, the anatomy of the universe.
2. Simple dynamic system with predetermined notions, which is also called the level of clockworks.
3. Control mechanism or cybernetic system. This level is for self regulating in order to maintain the equilibrium.
4. Open system or self-maintaining structure. Life starts to differentiate from not life.
5. Genetic-societal level. It occupied the empirical world of the botanist.
6. Animal level, which is characterized by increased mobility, self-awareness and teleological behavior.
7. Human level, the individual is considered as a system to have the ability of using languages and symbols and having self-awareness.
8. Social system, with the content and meaning of messages, the nature and dimensions of value systems.
9. Transcendental systems, which exhibit systematic structures and relationships.
In business world, systems theory is widely applied as one of solutions. Systems analysis is also used as one of the tools to understand the external and internal impacts when making some business decisions (Peterson, 2004). Nowadays, the business enterprises attract many attentions from the public as a social system. The business organization is a system, which has a dynamic interdependence with its internal and external environment such as consumers, competitors, government and other factors. The main purpose of systems theory for business is to make the process of decision making easy for project managers. There are 6 main subsystems in every business organization.
1. Sensor system
2. Information processing system
3. Decision-making system
4. Processing system
5. Control component system
6. Memory or information storage system
In addition, a goal setting process will be carry out in an organization and the performance will also be quantified by sales, profits etc.
Management is the process of integrating irrelevant resources such as labor resources and physical resources into the whole system with the aim of achieving organizational goals. The responsibility of a manager is to coordinate and integrate the activities though working with different people and dealing with different physical resources so as to accomplish the whole objective successfully (Richard 1964, 376).
In information system, systemic analysis could...

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