Brief History of the Production and operations Management function
by V S Rama Rao on January 24, 2009
At the turn of the 20th century, the economic structure in most of the developed countries of today was fast changing from a feudalistic economy to that of an industrial or capitalistic economy. The nature of the industrial workers was changing and methods of exercising control over the workers, to get the desired output, had also to be changed. This changed economic climate produced the new techniques and concepts.
Fredric W Taylor studied the simple output to time relationship for manual labor such as brick-laying. This formed the precursor of the present day ...view middle of the document...
Till then, the focus was on the quantitative aspects; later on it shifted to the quality aspects. Quality which is an important customer service objective came to be recognized for scientific analysis. The analysis of productive system, therefore, now also included the effectiveness criterion in addition to efficiency. In 1931, Walter Shewart came up with theory regarding Control Charts for quality or what is known as ‘process control’. These charts suggested a simple graphical methodology to monitor the quality characteristics of the output and how to control it. In 1935, H F Dodge and HG Romig came up with application of statistical principles to the acceptance and/or rejection of the consignments supplied by the suppliers to exercise control over the quality. This field, which has developed over the years is now known as; acceptance sampling.
Effectiveness as a Function of Internal Climate:
In addition to effectiveness for the customer, the concept of effectiveness as a function of internal climate dawned on management scientists through the Hawthorne experiments which actually had the purpose of increasing the efficiency of the individual worker. These experiments showed that worker efficiency went up when the intensity of illumination was gradually increased, and even when it was gradually...