KEZZIE MKANDAWIRE POLYTECHNIC MALAWI
1. Negotiations Overview
Definition, and Types;
Goals and Objectives;
Tactics and Ploys; and
Team Versus Individual negotiation approaches.
2. The Negotiation Process
Pre – Negotiation;
Actual Negotiation; and
3. Achieving Success in Negotiation
i. Qualities of a successful negotiator;
ii. Preparing and planning for negotiation; and
iii. Designing a BATNA (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement).
4. Conflict Management in Negotiation
i. Types of negotiation conflict;
ii. Causes of conflict in Negotiation; and
iii. Conflict resolution and management strategies.
5. ...view middle of the document...
“..A process by which two or more parties with differing views initially attempt to reach an agreement
by the selective use of different methods of persuasion..” CIPS
“..The process whereby two or more parties decide what each will give and take in an exchange
Robin & Brown 75
“.. An occasion where one or more representatives of two or more parties interact in an explicit
attempt to reach a jointly acceptable position on one or more divisive issues about which they would
like to agree..” Gottschal 79.
“..Any form of verbal communication in which the participants seek to exploit their relative competitive
advantages and needs to achieve explicit or implicit objectives within the overall purpose of seeking
to resolve problems that are barriers to agreement...”
“..The process whereby two or more parties, who are faced with a problem or conflict about some
limited resources, attempt to agree on how best to resolve the conflict...”
“.. A form of decision making in which two or more parties talk with one another in an effort to
resolve their opposing interests… a process by which a joint decision is made by two or more
“..A basic means of getting what you want from others. It is a back-and-forth communication designed
to reach an agreement when you and the other side have some interests that are shared and others
that are opposed...”
Fisher & Ury
“..A process for resolving conflict between two or more parties whereby both or all modify their
demands to achieve a mutually acceptable compromise.. A process of adjusting both parties’ views of
their ideal outcome to an attainable outcome”
Kennedy et al
Tool in which conflicts may be resolved in such a way as to produce mutual benefits for the parties
rather than exclusive benefits for one at the expense of others,
….emphasis of this contemporary perspective on international negotiations is that one negotiates not
primarily to achieve victory for one's own country, but rather to solve problems that affect the
relations among counties in a highly dependent world (pp. 24 -25).
P. Terrence Hopmann
A verbal interactive process;
Involving two or more parties;
Who are seeking to reach an agreement;
Interdependence of the parties;
Allocation of resources;
Involves divisive issues which parties want to agree;
Takes place in a context in which participants use their comparative competitive advantages; and
Each has implicit and explicit objectives which determine negotiating strategies.
SUBJECT OF NEGOTIATIONS.
The purchasing and supply staff will negotiate with…
The suppliers; and
Internal customers (colleagues).
What Will be Negotiated (General)?
a. Technical support aspects – warranties, maintenance agreements etc.;
b. Financial aspects – deposits, payment terms, discounts,...