Amity global business school, singapore
Problem structuring methods
Manav dhall, batch- charlie
Given by – prof. kumar
Problem Structuring and Problem Structuring Methods
* What is Problem Structuring ?
1. Problem Structuring Methods are a broad group of approaches that are used to handle a problem .
2. Its purpose is to assist in structuring a problem instead of directly solving it .
3. These methods are Participative and Interactive in Nature.
* Ways to Structure the Problems?
1. There are two approaches used in Problem Structuring :-
a.Hard OR – This the classical, traditional and old method.
b.Soft OR – This is the modern approach ...view middle of the document...
FIRST TECHNIQUE:: Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA)
SODA elicits information from members of the group using individual interviews. Such information is represented on cognitive maps which shows:-
(1) Concepts that are relevant
(2) Linkage between the Concepts
Important Notes :- By concept here I mean a short phrase capturing some idea that should be an action-oriented idea, that is intended to suggest an option for changing the situation.
In this concept , we use three dots to separate positive and negative concepts , so that we can capture both concepts in "more traffic signals...less few traffic signals" This is read as "more traffic signals rather than few traffic signals", i.e. "more traffic signals as opposed to less traffic signals".
Concepts are linked by arrows, with the direction of the arrow being such that concepts representing options lead to concepts representing outcomes.
More traffic signals……less traffic signals
Less traffic jams
Concepts in maps are generally either:
I. Goals at the head (the top) of the arrow(generally termed as maps), these are things that are self-evidently regarded as "good things”
II. Options being at the tail (the bottom) of the map
As an example we show below a small map based on our Traffic jam example given above. We can see that the goals (at the top of the map) is "Less Traffic jams" .
Less traffic jams..
More traffic signals…..less traffic signals
Proper functioning of traffic signals
Smooth flow of traffic
* In the above the strategic options is "proper functioning of traffic signals.."
* As for all problem structuring methods the aim of SODA is to achieve understanding/agreement within the group.
SECOND TECHNIQUE:: Soft Systems Methodology (SSM)
SSM operates by defining systems of purposeful activity (the root definition), building models of a number of relevant systems, and comparing these models to the real world action going on, in order to structure a debate focusing on the differences.
There are seven stages in the SSM process, but they are not necessarily followed in a linear fashion :-
A. Stage 1 & 2 : Finding Out
This stage entails entering the problem situation and identifying within it:
* People - essentially all those with an interest in the system or who are likely to be affected by changes to it . For eg in our example the Population residing in Delhi and the Government are the “PEOPLE”
* Culture - social roles, norms of behaviour, values . For eg in our example “CULTURE” can be Government Policies regarding Vehicles , Nearby Area development when bridges are contructed , and problems faced by the local residents by contructions of the bridges in their locality.
* Politics - Commodities of power and how they are obtained, used, preserved and transmitted.
B. Stage 3: Developing...