This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Private Interests And Social Welfare Essay

2750 words - 11 pages

The human civilisation is composed of innumerable individuals, countless interest groups and social strata, with each of them following the fundamental instinct – striving to maximise their own well-being by obtaining as many benefits as they can and averting as much cost as possible. Unfortunately for humankind, for one to improve one’s life, competing with others is unavoidable. Competitions, by definition, means the winners get something at the expense of others. The good news is that competition among people is not a constant-sum game, that is to say, theoretically, if we can reallocate resources, rights and duties in a certain way, the humankind may benefit maximally. In the most ...view middle of the document...

Inevitably, these rulers of a state do not only play roles of rulers. They are also pleasure-driven human beings, bound by their emotions and self-love; they are also obliged to their families. It is conceivable that these obligations may contradict one another, and when it so happens, the rulers will be like standing at the fork in the road. This is the problem I address as the problem of multiple identities.
Huang’s Confucian school

In Huang’s view, a ruler’s duty to the state is very huge. The emperor of a state is never an easy role to play. He should not rule in accord to the interest of himself, but to the interest of all #(原君, para. 2). His returns may not be proportionate to the sweat and blood he dedicates. He is supposed to be a selfless coordinator and arbitrator of the state. His officials are naturally obliged to both the ruler and to the benefits of all under the heaven.

Huang proposes a solution to the problem by utilising “schools”. In his theory, Confucian scholars serve as consultants for and critics of the political circle. They provide advice to and criticise the emperor and his officials on a monthly basis. Through debates and reasoning, the “school” may uncover the blind spots and mistakes in current governance. #(學校, para. 21, 23) Therefore, the likelihood of the emperor or officials exploiting their power for the sake of their private interest is lowered.
The highest principles drawn up by Rousseau

Huang’s western counterpart, Rousseau, explains the nature of the executive branch of the state in Book III, and the nature of the legislature in Book II. I will only discuss the job of legislators here. The best legislators, according to Rousseau, should have the intelligence of “beholding all the passions of men without experiencing any of them”. (Book II, Chapter VII, para. 41). They need to decide what is good for the state and are responsible for reallocating resources for the people. (para. 43) The legislators should work independently, not only serving certain interest groups in society, for the sake of justice. This principle is to forbid concurrent command over both the law and man. (Book II, Chapter VII, para. 44)

Different from Huang’s idea that the emperor is still superior, Rousseau’s theory about politics assumes there is an ever-righteous General Will. Rousseau’s solution to the problem is based on this belief. He argues that the General Will is the only binding force that can be exerted on the individuals, so a law bill drawn by a however intelligent legislator, which is a particular will of an individual cannot become law before being authorised by the sovereignty. (Book II, Chapter VII, para. 47) The separation of power of drawing a law bill and legislation will therefore prevent the self-interest of the legislator impeding the collective welfare. Because General Will is the aggregation of many individual wills, it is possible to verify if a law bill proposed is in line with the General Will by...

Other Papers Like Private Interests And Social Welfare

What If... Texas Used Private Contractors to Administer State Government?

1015 words - 5 pages and monitoring of contracts for privately operated secure facilities as well as community based facilities. Texas highway construction and maintenance is also under private contract as well as the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), social welfare and education services and so on. So as we can see private-contracting is a common practice and the state doesn’t have to pay for government employees to perform these functions. 2) I feel

Public Law and Private Law Essay

5770 words - 24 pages to be seen increasingly as a matter of private regulation. The court decisions are pursuant to s.1 (1) of the Children Act 1989 (CA 1989) governed by the best interests of a child, taking into account all the matters appearing in the welfare checklist in s.1 (3) and (4), CA 1989.The checklist aims to give guidance to court and to have consistency within proceedings and for parties to focus on matters that affect children taking into account

Welfare Reform

2683 words - 11 pages , and local government and among public and private organizations. State flexibility was expanded under welfare reform. States may now choose what programs they feel there state needs instead of being told may the federal government what programs they need.I believe that welfare reform was a good idea. The system needs to be reformed and changed to better represent the times. The one major problem I see with welfare reform was when it was enacted

Social Welfare

1914 words - 8 pages Social Welfare Past & Present robert white HN300: Human Services and Social Policy Social Welfare Past & Present robert white HN300: Human Services and Social Policy 2014 2014 Social welfare began in England with the English Poor Laws. Poor Laws were a body of laws that provided relief for the poor, developed in 16th-century and maintained, with various changes, until after World War II. The Elizabethan Poor Laws, were

Mixed Economy

1853 words - 8 pages both by the government as well as private individuals. i.e. co-existence of both public sector and private sector. * Market forces prevail but are closely monitored by the government. Advantages * Producers and consumer have sovereignty to choose what to produce and what to consume but production and consumption of harmful goods and services may be stopped by the government. * Social cost of business activities may be reduced by

Us as a Residual Welfare System

3507 words - 15 pages necessary and is given as a last option of help. This means tested method of social assistance is seen to cater for those most in need and the poor while the private insurance sector caters for the middle and upper classes in society (Esping-Andersen 1990). The residual welfare system seeks to promote economic growth; and aims to protect the vulnerable without affecting the economic growth which is seen to be necessary to promote above all else

Internship Essay

818 words - 4 pages effects of private interest and public welfare in an organization. Moreover, its importance can be highlighted by understanding how it is constantly used nowadays to help establish clear boundaries between the interests of the different stakeholders existing in a particular firm. In the current competitive business environment, CSR enables employees to treat every one of corporate counterparts responsibly in order to grow and make profits. In the

United States Welfare Reform

1884 words - 8 pages alternatives. Rupaleem Bhuyan, an associate professor at the University of Toronto, states that “social welfare benefits as social entitlements are a crucial aspect of citizenship” (65). Dr. Eugenie Hildebrandt, PhD, RN, ANP adds that “government assistance to the poor is based on a society’s ethical principles and enlightened self-interest” (794). It is in the best interest of the country to serve those in need. These people must be adequately

education and welfare

677 words - 3 pages Education and WelfareEducation P.365Americans believe that their educational system should be based on the American dream: equal chance for everyone. They also believe that education is indispensable to democracy and social progress.The general goal is to achieve universal literacy and to provide individuals with the knowledge and skills which are necessary in promoting their own individual welfare as well as that of the general

Broken Home

1330 words - 6 pages VERONICA ANULIKA OGBOO SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT STUDIES KPT/CASS/10/2073 COURSE: SOCIAL POLICY ASSIGNMENT ON ORIGIN OF SOCIAL POLICY An Introduction to Social Policy Social Policy Social policy is the study of social services and the welfare state. In general terms, it looks at the idea of the social welfare. And its relationship to politics and society. More specifically, it also considers detailed issues in Modem government is based on a

The Causes Of Market Failure

1736 words - 7 pages external costs arises in a free-market economy because no-one has legal ownership of the air or rivers and can therefore prevent or charge for their use as a dump for waste. Control must, therefore, be left to the government or local authorities.2) External benefits of production (MSC < MC)Marginal social cost is less than marginal private cost.One of the example of external benefits in production is that of research and development. If other

Related Essays

Using The Example Of Surveillance, Discuss The Ways In Which Social Welfare And Crime Control Are Entangled

1178 words - 5 pages Using the example of surveillance, discuss the ways in which social welfare and crime control are entangled. Today’s surveillance plays an integral role in delivering both crime control and social welfare. The aim of surveillance is to provide us with a feeling of safety and protection in everyday social and community settings. Surveillance can include CCTV, security guards, uniformed officers and various healthcare professionals and

With The Help Of Examples Drawn From The Surveillance Film, Outline The Ways In Which Surveillance Is Used To Deliver Crime Control And Social Welfare

714 words - 3 pages Surveillance plays an integral role in delivering both crime control and social welfare. The use of surveillance in crime control is used as a preventative deterrent, whilst in social welfare; it is used for protection and safeguarding. However there are entanglements between crime control and social welfare; “the tensions between being watched out for and protected, and being watched over so that others may be protected” (as quoted by Allan

Social Policy Essay

1310 words - 6 pages 1. What is meant by the term ‘the welfare state’ today in contemporary Britain? The term “welfare state” today in contemporary Britain entails three principal elements. These are: Guaranteed minimum standards, for example the implementation of minimum wage, as at October 2010 it is set at £5. 93/hr. Secondly the state offers social protection in the form of health and safety laws and the provision of services on the basis of individual

Welfare Reform Essay

1831 words - 8 pages brought on new economic and social welfare legislation. This is the first time that the United States Government used federal and public funds to finance the welfare needs of the people. Today, the most expensive welfare program is Aid to Families with Dependent Children (A.F.D.C.). The A.F.D.C. was created after the passing of the Social Security Act of 1935. Throughout the last 60 years, the welfare system has faced many changes