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Pregnancy And Substance Abuse Essay

2396 words - 10 pages

Marijuana (also known as weed, pot or grass): 2
Cocaine: 2
Alcoholism 3
Biological Theories 6
Genetic Factors 6
Metabolic Imbalance 7

Social problems exist at the door step of every community it has been in existence decades ago and still lives on today. Social problems can be defined as an issue that ...view middle of the document...

Studies have shown that consumption of drugs and substances during pregnancy can also result in miscarriage, even maternal death.

Marijuana (also known as weed, pot or grass):
* Marijuana crosses the placenta to your baby and like cigarette smoke, contains toxins that keep your baby from getting the proper supply of oxygen that he or she needs to properly develop. Marijuana in pregnancy is said to be inconclusive because many women who smoke marijuana also use tobacco and alcohol. Smoking marijuana increases the levels of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the blood, and this reduces the oxygen supply to the baby. Pregnant mother that smoke marijuana increases their chances of miscarriage, low birth weight, premature births, developmental delays, and behavioural and learning problems.
* According to the Organization of Teratology Information Services (OTIS), the use of cocaine during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to miscarriage and later stages, cocaine use can cause placenta abruption. Placental abruption may lead to severe bleeding, preterm birth, and foetal death. OTIS also conveys that the risks of birth defects are greater when the mother use cocaine frequently. According to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynaecology (ACOG), women who use cocaine during their pregnancy have a 25 % increased chance of premature labour. Babies born to cocaine abuse mothers in the early stages of pregnancy tend to be smaller and babies exposed to cocaine later in pregnancy may be born dependent and suffer from withdrawal.

* Alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes birth defects called Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, or FASDs. The March of Dimes website states that up to 40,000 babies are born with a FASD each year. Addiction to Alcohol should be treated very early in the pregnancy since the baby develops the most during the first trimester. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms that are mild as tremor and agitation last a short


There are currently no law that holds prenatal substance abuse as a criminal act of child abuse and neglect. In Trinidad and Tobago and world-wide, governments have expanded their civil child-welfare requirements that include substance abuse during pregnancy as grounds for terminating parental rights in relation to child abuse and neglect. In Trinidad and Tobago this is enforced in the Domestic violence act and children act.
The laws that address prenatal substance abuse in some US States and other countries are as follows:
* Iowa, Minnesota, and North Dakota’s health care providers are required to test for and report prenatal drug exposure. Kentucky health care providers are only required to test.
* Alaska, Arizona, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Oklahoma, Utah, Rhode Island and Virginia’s, health care providers are required to report prenatal drug...

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