Post War Nz Essay

1197 words - 5 pages

Why did 1984 mark a sea change in the history of post-war New Zealand’s political system and policy making?
The year 1984 played a significant role in how New Zealand’s political system and policy making is shaped today. This period saw marked transformations of many policies, government expenditure, alterations in its foreign trade policies and saw numerous economic reforms. These radical reforms worked to stabilize New Zealand’s stagnant markets and society. To fully comprehend how these changes came about, it is necessary to draw from the period of 1945 to 1965. Whilst the post war period experienced much upheavals and disharmony, these amendments were vital to bring about the ...view middle of the document...

New Zealand had to deal with not only its relationship with Britain ending but had to quickly diversify its exports and markets (Gustafson, 2006: 5)
Britain’s entry into the European Community, oil shocks, inflation and rising unemployment all accumulated into New Zealand’s political culture to become more individualistic, heterogeneous and more concerned with equality of opportunities (Gustafson, 2006: 6). Urbanisation, immigration and increased technology resulted in a society flush with diversity. The general consensus had ended and the country was divided on how best to address to situations at hand. “The drastic restructuring process was initiated by the election of the fourth Labour government in 1984” (McAloon, 2002: 1). A central leader in the many reforms was the Finance Minister Roger Douglas. “He showed early signs of entrepreneurial talent” (Aberbach & Christensen, 2001: 406). The changes that then Prime Minister David Lange and Roger Douglas brought about have stayed the same ever since (Gustafson, 2006: 8). However there has been concern over the information basis of these central actors and whether they acted on complete information (Aberbach & Christensen, 2001: 407). There are arguments that the Treasury’s advice was inadequately informed. “The Crisis of 1984 gave a group of actors inside the New Zealand Labour Party, headed by Roger Douglas, a readymade opportunity to apply economic solutions that have been on the shelf for some time” (Aberbach & Christensen, 2001: 413).
Many of the economic reforms set forth by the Labour Government were carried on by the fourth National Government. Effectively it cut government expenditures such as welfare benefits and deregulated the labour market (Evans et al, 1996: 1861). These changes increased economic efficiency. To lessen New Zealand’s national debt many enterprises were sold off and assets became privatised - many ending up with overseas owners (Gustafson, 2006: 9). “A major element for New Zealand in the post war economy is the transition from colonisation to independence (McAloon, 2002: 4). New Zealand’s political attitude was transformed from consensus and conformity to one of competition and individualism. A major symbol of New Zealand’s independence from the USA and Britain in defence matters was its Anti-Nuclear legislation in 1987 (Gustafson, 2006: 9).
A number of policies were brought forward to grapple with New Zealand’s very large deficits. The very core of how these policies worked was through the new National Government’s expenditure restrictions and strong economy growths. These policies worked to reduce overall expenditure (Evans at al, 1996: 1868). The Goods and Services tax was also introduced in 1986 – reflecting a...

Other Papers Like Post War Nz

Freedom And Responsibility Essay

2141 words - 9 pages amendment is “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercises thereof” (Jordan, 1999). Therefore, the first amendment states citizens have freedom of religion and exercises of the religion. The article entitled “Lawsuit alleges FBI violated Muslims’ freedom of religion,” published by Jerry Markon, Washington Post Staff Writer, justifies the detailed case of the FBI surveillance targeting Muslims for

Hate Crime Laws Essay

2348 words - 10 pages On June 7, 1998, 49-year-old James Byrd Jr. of Texas accepted a ride from three white men, who then beat him severely, urinated on him, chained him by his ankles to the back of their pick-up truck, dragged him for three miles into the countryside, and dumped his corpse in front of an African-American cemetery (Graczyk). A little over a year later, a jury sentenced ring leader John King to death by lethal injection (“Man Executed for Dragging

Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study Conceptualization And Treatment Plan

2140 words - 9 pages Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study of Sarah: A Conceptualization and Treatment Plan Rational emotive behavior therapy, REBT, was developed by Albert Ellis and holds the central belief that the events in our lives do not cause our disturbances but that they are instead caused by our view of the events (Murdock, 2009). Murdock (2009) states that “people are seen as responsible for their behavior” (p. 279) but, because they are

Holidays In Albania

1636 words - 7 pages Have you ever thought about having exciting and incredibly cheap vacations? Albania might be the right choice. According to My Travel Guide, Albania is ranked the fourth among ten places worth visiting in Eastern Europe (“Top 10 Eastern European Destinations”). One can encounter three kinds of vacations in this Mediterranean country: winter, summer, and cultural. The ideal places to spend your winter vacations are the Albanian Alps. They are

A Heart Of Darkness

1748 words - 7 pages evaluation). He describes how England was once a place of war and bloodshed during the Roman conquest; thus, the civilized connotation of modern England is contrasted with a barbarous era of England’s history. Later in the journey, Marlow comes upon a native dressed in patches of “bright colors.” Marlow views the bright colors as a symbol of civilization, especially in the Congo where everything is brown or dark. The boy is standing under the sun looking

The Aspects Of Vulnerability Among The Exploited In Medical Research

2287 words - 10 pages Essentially, everyone is in some state of vulnerability. However, some of us are more susceptible to harm due to our vulnerabilities. The susceptible are the individuals with the greatest risk. These individuals risk the loss of their autonomy, and maybe even their lives. Vulnerable populations can be found in every subset of society. However, as previously mentioned, there are some vulnerable populations that are at an even greater risk than

The Hitchhiker’S Guide To The Galaxy

1171 words - 5 pages The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy As the human race makes life-changing discoveries, it is made apparent that there is always more to learn as the universe, instead of becoming familiar, is becoming absurd. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, written by Douglas Adams, as well as the 2005 film adaption, portrays absurdity to be an all-encompassing system in the universe. Through the introduction and attempt to understand lack of reason, the

The Ford Motor Company Wage Increase Of 1914 And The Theory Of Incentives And Efficiency Wages

1252 words - 6 pages ‘It’s not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages’ (Henry Ford, cited in Johnson and Weinstein 2004, p. 2). When the Ford Motor Company announced that it would more than double the wages of its workers in January 1914 to a ‘five-dollar day’ minimum, was this a contradiction to Henry Ford’s statement? If customers are actually the ultimate payers of wages, then more than

Historical Analysis Of The Economical Breakthroughs Of The Industrial Revolution

1396 words - 6 pages A Historical Analysis of the Economical Breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution, many elements of society experienced huge breakthroughs that would change the way they functioned forever. Economics were definitely one of them. With many new inventions and many factories appearing, many, many, more resources were being created than ever before. Also, all of the revenue from these resources was being given to

Leadership Portrayed in Monologue from Shakespeare’s Henry V

1214 words - 5 pages Leadership is defined as a socially constructed process and which also affect organizational future outcomes. Leader is someone at high position who have overall duty for an organization, she or he decide what to do and the way how to achieve it. (Carter and Greer, 2013)The role of leader is extremely important for an organization, leader use their own power to influence the followers though many different ways such as motivation in order to

Cuba Civil Rights

1906 words - 8 pages economy, and destroy there communism and there socialism. The Cubans have a corrupt police force, abuse civilians and have a poor attempt at a health care system. United States of America need to help Cuba solve its human rights violations.   Work Cited Browning, Michael. "25 Years After Mariel: 'The Boats That Would Bring Us to Freedom'." Palm Beach Post (West Palm Beach, FL). 17 Apr 2005: 1A+. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 14 Oct 2013. Corrales

Related Essays

Leadership And Legacy: Australian Wartime Experiences

2593 words - 11 pages Author’s Note I was at a loss for an idea for the challenge until my father suggested I go and have a chat with Mr David Lewien, a Vietnam veteran. He did not suggest anyone locally, but he spoke about to his interpretations of Leadership and Legacy. I decided to take Chaplain Andrew Gillison as a model for a leader leaving a legacy, as he was in World War One, as was my great grandfather. I have never heard much about my great grandfather’s

Asean Essay

8221 words - 33 pages make tsunami recovery. China who helped Asia lead the global post-2008 recovery still grapples with 3-years high inflation. So, in the longterm all of the problems will give negative impact to ASEAN indirectly. There are possibility to push some programs of ASEAN Economic Community before 2015.[87] Intra-ASEAN travel with free visa among ASEAN countries, a huge intra-ASEAN travel occurred and on the right track to establish an ASEAN Community

History And Structure Of The Travel And Tourism Sector

4624 words - 19 pages Amex in USA * Increased interest in photography as a hobby * Invention of guidebooks (Baedeker) 2.3 EARLY 20TH CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS * Ongoing expansion of travel for pleasure * increased wealth, curiosity and outgoing attitudes * Increasing ease of movement * Word war1 led to introduction of passports * Post ww1 led to large scale migration boosting international travel * New forms of mass communication (cinema, radio then T.V

International Economies Theory Essay

4241 words - 17 pages discussion in Chapter 5 of factor-price equalization.) FURTHER READINGS James E. Anderson and Eric van Wincoop. “Trade Costs.” Journal of Economic Literature 42 (September 2004), pp. 691–751. Comprehensive survey of the nature and effects of costs of international trade. Gustav Cassel. Post-War Monetary Stabilization. New York: Columbia University Press, 1928. Applies the purchasing power parity theory of exchange rates in analyzing the monetary