After the North defeated the South in the Civil War, all that remained of the divided country was ruins of towns, cities, factories, and homes. The Northern and Southern people were divided into two different parts, and so politicians had to face the task of putting the divided country back together into the Union. The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 laid out the process for readmitting Southern States into the Union. In the South Reconstruction meant rebuilding the economy, establishing new state and local governments and establishing a new social structure between whites and blacks, but many social and political views made it much difficult.
President Lincoln came up with 10% Plan to reconstruct the South which stated that a state could be readmitted into the Union if 10% of its voters swore a oath of allegiance to Union; as well as, the plan meant that ...view middle of the document...
Under Johnson’s presidency, Black Codes was passed that was unfair for African Americans. Republicans opposed his plan as it was disloyal to blacks. Also, Congress rejected Johnson’s argument that he had the power to decide what to do. Tenure of Office Act was passed that denied the president power to remove anyone unless approved by the senate. As Congress took over the power from the president in Reconstruction Acts, congressional reconstruction began which divided up the south into five military districts. The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were passed to protect blacks from being slaves. Many states rejoined the United States after the 15th amendment was passed that prohibits the government from denying a citizen the right to vote on color or race. With the power to vote, freedmen started participating in politics. Many northern educated blacks moved down to South to educate southern illiterate slaves. Scalawags (southerners supportive of union) and Carpetbaggers (returned from native union veterans) created new state constitution to set new directions for southern states.
Johnson’s plan also turned out to be unsuccessful and there also created the problems between whites and blacks. Whites organized a secret organization, Ku Klux Klan, in Tennessee that prevented blacks from voting. They were very dangerous that they couldn’t even be stopped by the US Army troops. So, there were many social issues between blacks and whites going on that made reconstruction more difficult. Ulysses S. Grant tried to control all violence in South and passed three bills to enforce 15th amendment. Grant ended the Klan.
In 1876, United States President Rutherford B. Hayes removed the remaining soldiers from the Reconstruction sites which was the end of Reconstruction. Reconstruction united North and South and African Americans achieved their rights of citizen and to vote even if Presidency, governments, and other social problems made it difficult.