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Population Growth Research Papers

4060 words - 17 pages

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Population growth
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The estimated size of human population from 10,000 BCE–2000 CE.
'Population growth' refers to the growth in human populations. Global population growth is around 80 million annually, or 1.2% p.a. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1925 to 7 billion in 2012. It is expected to keep growing to reach 11 billion by the end of the century. Most of the growth occurs in the nations with the most poverty, showing the direct link between high population growth and low standards of living. The nations with high standards of living generally have low or zero rates of population ...view middle of the document...

g. advanced economies may grow faster while backward economies grow slowly or even experience negative growth. (Growth can be both positive or negative i.e. growth can increase or decrease.)
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Population growth rate[edit]
In demographics and ecology, the "population growth rate" is the rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases in a given time period as a fraction of the initial population. Specifically, population growth rate refers to the change in population over a unit time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. This can be written as the formula:

The most common way to express population growth is as a percentage. That is:

A positive growth ratio (or rate) indicates that the population is increasing, while a negative growth ratio indicates the population is decreasing. A growth ratio of zero indicates that there were the same number of people at the two times—net difference between births, deaths a growth rate may be zero even when there are significant changes in the birth rates, death rates, immigration rates, and age distribution between the two times.[2]
A related measure is the net reproduction rate. In the absence of migration, a net reproduction rate of more than one indicates that the population of women is increasing, while a net reproduction rate less than one (sub-replacement fertility) indicates that the population of women is decreasing.
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Excessive growth and decline[edit]
Main articles: Human overpopulation and Population decline
Population exceeding the carrying capacity of an area or environment is called overpopulation. It may be caused by growth in population or by reduction in capacity. Spikes in human population can cause problems such as pollution and traffic congestion, these might be resolved or worsened by technological and economic changes. Conversely, such areas may be considered "underpopulated" if the population is not large enough to maintain an economic system (see population decline). Between these two extremes sits the notion of the optimum population.
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Human population growth rate[edit]
Main article: Total fertility rate

A world map showing global variations in fertility rate per woman, according to the CIA World Factbook's 2013 data.
  7–8 children  6–7 children |   5–6 children  4–5 children |   3–4 children  2–3 children |   1–2 children  0–1 children |

Estimates of population evolution in different continents between 1950 and 2050, according to the United Nations. The vertical axis islogarithmic and is in millions of people.

Growth rate of world population (1950–2050).
Globally, the growth rate of the human population has been declining since peaking in 1962 and 1963 at 2.20% per annum. In 2009, the estimated annual growth rate was...

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