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Piscicola Essay

1391 words - 6 pages

Producción Pisícola
La piscicultura es la acuicultura de peces, término bajo el que se agrupan una gran diversidad de cultivos muy diferentes entre sí, en general denominados en función de la especie o la familia. A nivel industrial, las instalaciones de piscicultura se conocen como piscifactorías, aunque este es un término en desuso, debido a la diversificación que ha sufrido el cultivo, en tanques, estanques, jaulas flotantes, etc.
Un cardumen, también llamado banco de peces, es un conjunto de peces similares, no necesariamente de especies comerciales, como atún o sardina. Y puede no ser tampoco específica a una especie. Se reserva el término "banco"para grupos de la misma especie, ...view middle of the document...

Los sistemas de acuicultura se clasifican en general, con arreglo a los mayores insumos técnicos, financieros y de gestión, en sistemas extensivos, semi-intensivos e intensivos. Los sistemas extensivos consisten de ordinario en grandes estanques de tierra, o zonas encerradas en alguna masa acuática mayor. Los sistemas intensivos se diferencian de los extensivos en el suministro de alimento para las poblaciones, y la elevada densidad de la población. Estos sistemas se caracterizan por la breve permanencia del agua en el sistema, y por el tipo de instalaciones que consisten en estanques de tierra o revestidos, cisternas o canales de hormigón, cisternas de fibra de vidrio y jaulas fijas o flotantes instaladas dentro de una masa de agua mayor. Los sistemas semi-intensivos se sitúan en un punto intermedio entre los anteriores. Los niveles típicos de producción de estos sistemas son los siguientes: extensivo = 250 kg/ha/año; semi-intensivo = 600 kg/ha/año; intensivo = generalmente más de 1 000 kg/ha/año, pero puede alcanzar hasta 4 millones de kg/ha/año (Bardach et al., 1973). En el Cuadro 2 se indican con más detalle los niveles potenciales de producción de los diferentes sistemas de acuicultura.
Sistemas de Producción de alimentos piscícolas
* La calidad de los estanques. Para mucha gente, un estanque piscícola es simplemente un cuerpo de agua, pero en realidad no lo es. La tecnología para construir los estanques ha progresado mucho. El dique frontal debe ser lo suficientemente grande como para evitar la pérdida de agua y nutrientes por filtración. El fondo del estanque debe tener un declive suficiente para permitir un drenaje rápido y completo, en particular al final de la operación de vaciado cuando los peces sufren por la baja calidad del agua. En algunos casos, el perfil del estanque tiene que adaptarse al cultivo de productos complementarios durante el crecimiento de los peces (arroz) o durante el drenaje.
* La densidad de peces (número de peces por unidad de superficie) debe adaptarse a la cantidad de alimento (natural y artificial) disponible. Para un nivel dado de alimentación, cuando la densidad es muy elevada el crecimiento se detiene; cuando es muy baja, la cosecha es mala.
* El poli cultivo de peces (cultivo de varias especies de peces en el mismo estanque). En una granja piscícola integrada, la producción de peces se apoya principalmente en el alimento natural, incluso si se utiliza un alimento artificial. Es entonces conveniente usar especies de peces con regímenes alimentarios que se complementen entre sí (herbívoros, bentívoros, planctívoros, etc.), con el fin de explotar todos los recursos tróficos disponibles. Esto se conoce como poli cultivo. Algunas interacciones entre diferentes especies de peces pueden incluso promover un mejor crecimiento que si cada especie de pez fuese producida separadamente (por ejemplo, la tilapia provee una mejor oxigenación del agua, lo cual beneficia a otras especies). No obstante hay...

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