Pipe Friction Essay

707 words - 3 pages

NE 402 Laboratory Pressure Losses in Pipes and Fittings Objective: The Cussons Hydraulic Bench is to be used to measure friction factors and local loss coefficients in selected piping arrangements. These include sudden expansions, sudden contractions and bends. Other flow components to be studied in this lab include a Venturi flow meter and an Orifice flow meter. The theory for using Venturi tubes and orifice plates for flow rate measurement will also be verified. The hydraulics bench can be operated in both the laminar flow (Re < 2300) and turbulent flow regimes by adjustment of the fluid velocity. At low flows, the velocity is controlled by maintaining level (and therefore pressure) in two ...view middle of the document...

In a piping system consisting of both straight pipe segments and local flow obstructions, the total pressure drop is a linear sum of these two components. Flow rate measurement with the Venturi tube is based on application of Bernoulli’s equation and mass conservation at selected points within the component. In the absence of losses, the volumetric flow rate ( Q = VAx ) of a constant density fluid through the venturi can be shown to be

Q = A

2 gc
2

( P1 −
2 1

P2 ) ⎞ ⎟ ⎠
2

⎛ ⎛ A ρ ⎜1 − ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ A ⎝

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

where: A1 = inlet area A2 = throat area P1 = inlet pressure P2 = throat pressure. With known Venturi geometry, the system flow rate is found by measuring P1 and P2. In reality, some irreversible losses within the venturi are to be expected. This is accounted for by an experimentally determined discharge coefficient Cd such that the actual volumetric flow rate is

Q = Cd A

2 gc
2

( P1 −
2 1

P2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎠

)
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

⎛ ⎛ A ρ ⎜1 − ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

2

⎝ A

The equation for volumetric flow rate given above is also commonly used to determine the flow through orifice plates and nozzles. Procedure: 1) Under...

Other Papers Like Pipe Friction

Similitude and Dimension Analysis

1147 words - 5 pages fluid element are FG , FP ,FV , and FI. Then we will have dynamic similarity if = = = = Reynolds Number • In the flow of a fluid through a completely filled conduit, gravity does not affect the flow pattern. Also, since there are no free liquid surfaces, capillarity is obviously of no practical importance. Therefore the significant forces are inertia and fluid friction due to viscosity. • For the ratio of inertia forces to viscous forces, we

Roughnecks: Oil Rig Workers Essay

4045 words - 17 pages On a bright, sunny, but breezy afternoon, I made my way out towards Mad Dog 4, an oilrig. The derrick, by definition is, a tower on top of the rig used as a crane at times for moving heavy equipment, but mostly for moving the pipe in and out of the hole, which is being drilled. It rises up from the middle of a field, standing tall and white, like the Eiffel Tower, surrounded by large blue, yellow, or white containers. There is a small sign

Fluid Mechanics

1694 words - 7 pages 1, Creeping motion or Stokes flow occurs. This is an extreme case of laminar flow where viscous (friction) effects are much greater than inertial forces. The common application of laminar flow would be in the smooth flow of a viscous liquid through a tube or pipe. In that case, the velocity of flow varies from zero at the walls to a maximum along the centerline of the vessel. The flow profile of laminar flow in a tube can be calculated by

From Bits To Booms; The Backbone Of The Oil Industry

3476 words - 14 pages company man goes to from time to time to check out these mud mixtures; this is an important step, because the fluids are there to lessen the friction of the drill bit churning into the Earth, it acts as a lubricant. There are other rail cars used for such things as a boiler room, which creates the steam lines; along with one called the light house, where a satellite dish sits on top of, and holds power generators inside. Among all this are two

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

2578 words - 11 pages Lab #4* – *Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Introduction: Procedure: Step #1: Open up valves 11 and 13, and make sure that valves 10 and 12 are entirely closed. This will give you the proper flow setup for the parallel flow measurements. Step #2: Set the hot water flow rotameter to a % reading of 26, this 26% flow rate represents an actual flow rate of 0.2 CFM for the how water. This flow rate will be good for the first four conditions in which

Natural Gas Fracking

2282 words - 10 pages designed to prevent scale build-up in the well and reduce friction to help manage well pressure. The mixture includes acids, commonly used as swimming pool cleaner, to help dissolve minerals and initiate fissure in rock, pre-fracture. Sodium Chloride, commonly found in table salt, allows a delayed breakdown of the gel polymer chains. Another, polyacrylamide, commonly used in water treatment and as a soil conditioner, minimizes the friction between

Nt1310 Unit 8 Lab

2112 words - 9 pages properly matched to cable characteristics. A Kellem Grip should spread pulling forces over a 1-1/2 to 3-foot length of cable. For small cables, pre-stretching and taping the Kellems Grip to the cable helps to assure even pulling. Cable Lubricants many lubricants are available for lowering friction forces. These include greases, waxes, clay slurries and water-based gels. Fiber optic jacket materials are compatible with most of these. For new

Buet Wre Syllabus

5652 words - 23 pages 4.00 Credit, 4 hrs/week Development and scope of fluid mechanics; fluid properties; fluid statics; kinematics of fluid flow; fluid flow concepts and basic equations- continuity equation, Bernoulli’s equation, energy equation, momentum equation and forces in fluid flow. Similitude and dimensional analysis. Steady incompressible flow in pressure conduits; laminar and turbulent flow; general equation for fluid friction. Empirical equations for pipe

How Engines Work

4268 words - 18 pages (so that more air/fuel mixture can be squeezed into each cylinder) to increase performance. The amount of pressurization is called boost. A turbocharger uses a small turbine attached to the exhaust pipe to spin a compressing turbine in the incoming air stream. A supercharger is attached directly to the engine to spin the compressor. Increasing your engine's performance is great, but what exactly happens when you turn the key to start it? The

Tarlac Dike

2490 words - 10 pages magma from the magma chamber of the Earth rises up the pipe and out of the vent. Magma is continuously supplied from the mantle of the Earth. Shield volcanoes usually have a gentle eruption, as it contains basic lava. Acid-lava and composite volcanoes usually have a violent eruption as it contains acidic lava. The vent of the volcano might also be blocked, causing the magma to force its way out, thus causing a huge explosion. In a more

Natual Capitalism

9179 words - 37 pages that two motor controls, and electrical components embarrassingly simple design changes would could all be much smaller hecause there'd he less friction to overcome. Capital cost cut power requirements by 92%. would fall far more for the smaller equipment than it would rise for the fatter pipe. Choosing big pipes and small pumps-rather than optimal way, the nation's $22o-hillion-a-year elecsmall pipes and big pumps-would therefore make tric bill

Related Essays

Losses In Pipes Fittings Essay

928 words - 4 pages Energy Losses in Pipes and Fittings Objectives: i. The objectives of this experiment were to firstly, measure the experimental head loss which was due to the friction which occurred in a straight pipe and compare the value with that of which was obtained using a Moody chart. Then to demonstrate that head loss gradient and flow-rate squared are proportional to each other. Summary of Theory: Fluid flows can be described in two ways. These

Physics Of Music And Sound Essay

2303 words - 10 pages to the right. Therefore both pipe (open and closed) and string instruments acquire standing waves in their process nevertheless how the standing waves are presented when played are different. There are many variables that affect the sound produced in instruments, firstly, a variable being temperature. Temperature affects instruments in multiple ways, for example, when a violin is in warmer weather, the friction between the bow and the

Soil Investigation For Land Reclamation Essay

2982 words - 12 pages Settlement Plate a) Material Steel plate(1.0 m x 1.0 m) connected with steel pipe (dia. 1") or concrete block with a rounded stud. A protective PVC pipe (dia. 3") will be encased around steel pipe to prevent negative skin friction. b) Installation procedure â‘  A 1.0 m x 1.0 m area is cleared and leveled to a depth of approx. 0.5 m below ground level. â‘¡ The base plate connected with steel pipe is then placed. â‘¢ Encase

Viscous Losses In Pipes Essay

1489 words - 6 pages until a deflection of the manometer is registered Measure pressure difference and flow rate Change the settings of the flow control valve and repeat experiment Theory Viscous friction losses in a pipe can be predicted with the Darcy-Weisbach equation: Δp = f (L/D) (1/2) ρ V² Where ΔP = pressure drop, L = length of pipe, D = pipe diameter, = fluid density and V = mean velocity of the fluid (V = Q/A). The value of the friction factor f is