Phobias and Addiction
May 22, 2012
* This paper explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning this can be thought of as a reaction that is learned through the pairing of stimuli. How addictions can be developed through operant conditioning. Operant conditioning, also called instrumental conditioning, is a method for modifying behavior an operant which utilizes contingencies between a discriminative stimulus, an operant response, a reinforce to change the probability of a response occurring again in that situation. This paper also Distinguishes between classical and operant conditioning. One of the major differences ...view middle of the document...
Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant conditioning is at work every day consider the case of children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise or promotions. The use of reinforcements can strengthens or increases the behavior it follows.
For example phobias can be attained through operant conditioning by repeatedly reinforcing avoidance of a fearful situation. Phobias are also maintained by operant conditioning through a negative reinforcement by avoiding the object or situation that causes the phobias. When the anxiety is reduced the avoidance behavior is negatively reinforced then the phobia is maintained.
Classical conditioning is an early form of behaviorism that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that causes a response. Over time, the neutral stimulus will begin to cause the response.
According to Robert J. Gustafson example of the practical use of classical conditioning principles is the use of taste aversion to prevent coyotes from preying on domestic livestock (Gustafson et al., 1974). A conditioned taste aversion occurs when a neutral stimulus (eating some type of food) is paired with an unconditioned response. Becoming ill after eating the food unlike other forms of classical conditioning, this type of conditioning does not require multiple pairings in order for an association to form. In fact, taste aversions generally occur after just a single pairing. Ranchers have found useful ways to put this form of classical conditioning to good use to protect their herds. In one example, mutton was injected with a drug that produces severe nausea. After eating the poisoned meat, coyotes then avoided sheep herds rather than attack them (Gustafson et al., 1976).
Addictions, how do people get addicted to food, sex, gambling, and drugs? Just to name a few things that are...