This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Phobias And Addiction Essay

908 words - 4 pages

Phobias and Addiction
Eugene McDaniel
PSY/300
May 22, 2012
Deandriea Bass

Abstract
* This paper explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning this can be thought of as a reaction that is learned through the pairing of stimuli. How addictions can be developed through operant conditioning. Operant conditioning, also called instrumental conditioning, is a method for modifying behavior an operant which utilizes contingencies between a discriminative stimulus, an operant response, a reinforce to change the probability of a response occurring again in that situation. This paper also Distinguishes between classical and operant conditioning. One of the major differences ...view middle of the document...

Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant conditioning is at work every day consider the case of children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise or promotions. The use of reinforcements can strengthens or increases the behavior it follows.
For example phobias can be attained through operant conditioning by repeatedly reinforcing avoidance of a fearful situation. Phobias are also maintained by operant conditioning through a negative reinforcement by avoiding the object or situation that causes the phobias. When the anxiety is reduced the avoidance behavior is negatively reinforced then the phobia is maintained.

Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning is an early form of behaviorism that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that causes a response. Over time, the neutral stimulus will begin to cause the response.
According to Robert J. Gustafson example of the practical use of classical conditioning principles is the use of taste aversion to prevent coyotes from preying on domestic livestock (Gustafson et al., 1974). A conditioned taste aversion occurs when a neutral stimulus (eating some type of food) is paired with an unconditioned response. Becoming ill after eating the food unlike other forms of classical conditioning, this type of conditioning does not require multiple pairings in order for an association to form. In fact, taste aversions generally occur after just a single pairing. Ranchers have found useful ways to put this form of classical conditioning to good use to protect their herds. In one example, mutton was injected with a drug that produces severe nausea. After eating the poisoned meat, coyotes then avoided sheep herds rather than attack them (Gustafson et al., 1976).
Addictions
Addictions, how do people get addicted to food, sex, gambling, and drugs? Just to name a few things that are...

Other Papers Like Phobias and Addiction

Classical Conditioning Essay

1344 words - 6 pages extinction. Extinction can be developed by conditioned response or behavior decreasing, but this does not mean it is erased completely (Anzctak, 2011). Classical and Operant Conditioning related to Phobias and Addiction Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning are two different learning processes which are used in our everyday lives. Classical conditioning is when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned

Mental Disorders: Anthrophobia Essay

1032 words - 5 pages including depression, anxiety, addiction and phobias (Cherry). Most therapist say that the cure of anthrophobia actually depends on the patients themselves on how hard they try to heal themselves and get rid of their fear (Anthrophobia: Fear of People or Society). In conclusion, Anthrophobia is the fear of being around people interacting with others. Anthrophobia like other phobias and mental disorders has its own causes, symptoms, and

Phobias & Addictions

981 words - 4 pages dictated because of environment or other factors surrounding oneself than occurring without any sort of studied behavior. Phobias and addictions are two emotional difficulties which learning theorists can account for. Addiction is both a physiological and psychological disorder where individuals become dependent upon one thing or another. Phobias can be developed through classical as well as operant conditioning. There are distinct factors that

Operant Conditioning

608 words - 3 pages types of rewards are frequently delayed (such as the return of good health). An unfortunate cycle also develops. As addiction progresses, the availability of natural, healthy pleasures (rewards) decline due to the addiction. Friendships are strained. Meaningful jobs or hobbies are lost or abandoned. When this happens, addicted people become more and more dependent on their addiction as their sole source of reward. This creates an unfortunate but

Phobias, Addictions, Conditioning

968 words - 4 pages Phobias, Addiction, Conditioning Amy A. Schroeder University of Phoenix General Psychology 300 Belky Schwartz March 16, 2014 Phobias, Addiction, Conditioning Phobias, addictions born that way or are we taught these characteristics through different forms of conditions that occur throughout our lives, in this paper I will be exploring these ideas. Distinguish between classical and operant condition, explain what extinction means and

Soft Sciences

1350 words - 6 pages Addiction as it Relates to Classical and Operant Conditioning Social phobia is also known as social anxiety which is a persistent phobia from negative assessment of others. Most people suffering from this type of phobia or social anxiety would turn to drugs and alcohol to lessen the anxiety (Lak, Sedaghat, and Almadv, & 2012), and then the self-medicated or self with illegal drugs leads to addiction. The paper essay will focus phobias and

Phobias and Addictions

1628 words - 7 pages Phobias and Addictions in Classical and Operant Conditioning Every one of us is conditioned in some way or another, either classically or operant, without even being aware of it. These types of conditioning could affect us and have us acquire a phobia or addiction based on something that happened. Phobias and addictions are simply emotional matters of the mind. Phobias can be developed through classical conditioning; whereas addictions can be

Phobias and Addictions

867 words - 4 pages Phobias and Addictions Victor Soto PSY/300 February 22, 2012 Dr. Amy Loder Psy.D Phobias and Addictions A textbook definition of phobia is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation. How does such an irrational fear begin can probably be explained through classical conditioning. In other words fears are learned. Learning is any relatively permanent

Internet Addiction

2015 words - 9 pages treatment in terms of the underlying psychological causes that promote Internet Addiction was introduced by Dr. Davis – known as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Often the psychosomatic factors that encouraged IAD included depression, social anxiety, phobias, psychosis, or substance abuse. (Young, de Abreu 229; Alavi 793). However many researchers such as Dr. Ko refuted his claims with their research-based studies and thus David broadened his model

Phobias and Addictions

1286 words - 6 pages Phobias and Addictions January 25, 2012 Phobias and Addictions Why do individuals do the things they do? Could it possibly be due to the individual’s upbringing? Could it possibly be caused by the age old argument of what the media has given society as entertainment? Either way the coin is flipped something will have a significant influence the way an individual will act. This is what researchers call conditioning. Classical conditioning

Brain Disorder

1245 words - 5 pages the persons’ response is not appropriate for the situation, if the person cannot control the response, or if the anxiety interferes with normal functioning. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, social disorder and specific phobias Eating disorders involve extreme emotions, attitudes, and behaviors involving weight and food, Anerexica nervousa.bulima nervosa and binge eating disorder are the

Related Essays

Phobias And Addictions Essay 984 Words

984 words - 4 pages Phobias and Addictions Phobias and Addictions Everyone has a phobia and an addiction. A phobia is an extreme or irrational fear of or aversion to something: "he had a phobia about being under water"; "a phobia of germs.” An addiction is the fact or condition of being addicted to a particular substance, thing, or activity. Phobias and addictions are related to classical and operant conditioning. Phobias and

Phobias And Addictions Essay 844 Words

844 words - 4 pages Phobias and Addictions Paper Psy/300 4/26/14 Phobias and Addictions Paper Introduction Several individuals develop phobias or addictions in their lifetime. Phobias are an illogical fear that is of no danger to anyone else. Phobias are developed through classical conditioning. According to Barlett (2013) “addiction is defined as the need for and use of a habit forming substance despite knowledge that the substance is harmful” (p. 349

Phobias & Addictions Essay

1236 words - 5 pages Phobias & Addictions PSY/300 December 17, 2013 Betsy Ferronato Phobias & Addictions Within society, many individuals suffer from phobias or addictions and sometimes even both. A phobia is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation. Addiction is a need or enslavement to a substance, an object, an activity, or a habit that is psychologically or physically habit-forming such as narcotics are, to such an extent that its cessation

Phobias And Addictions Essay 956 Words

956 words - 4 pages Phobias and Addictions Tenina M. Brown PSY/300 February 04, 2013 Richard Alpert Phobias and Addictions Phobias and Addictions are behaviors that are learned through association to a stimulus. A phobia is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation (Kowalski& Westen, 2011). Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. Both phobias and addictions are learned by association and by learning methods such