Phobias & Addictions Essay

981 words - 4 pages

Phobias & Addictions


Phobias & Addictions
According to the Merriam – Webster Dictionary a “phobia” is an irrational persistent fear or dread of something. Phobias are disorders humans possess that are triggered by subconscious fears they may have about something directly or indirectly related to their particular phobia. Phobias are more operant conditions rather than classical conditions; meaning they are more dictated because of environment or other factors surrounding oneself than occurring without any sort of studied behavior. Phobias and addictions are two emotional difficulties which learning theorists can account for. Addiction is both a physiological ...view middle of the document...

Then, someone brings in some fresh flowers. The smell of those flowers may trigger the person’s desire
to have a smoke again and thus relapse. This is just one example of how operant conditioning plays a huge role in addiction, although there are plenty others.
Classical and operant conditioning are similar in that they link an environmental stimulus to a behavioral response from the organism or subject. Where classical and operant conditioning differ is in the order of presentation. In classical conditioning, there is a stimulus from the environment and that stimulus elicits a response from the organism/subject. A prime example of classical conditioning can be found in the behavior of pets. A cat learns to associate the sound of a can opener with getting fed cat food and eventually will come running to the kitchen whenever the can opener makes noise, even if it is not time for them to eat. In this example, the sound the can opener makes is the conditioned stimulus and it influences the behavior of the cat. Operant conditioning is different in that the behavior of the organism comes before the stimulus. In operant conditioning, the organism/subject displays a behavior. That behavior is random and is not linked to a circumstance or stimulus. However, the behavior leads to a favorable (or unfavorable) change in the environment. If the connection between the two is reinforced, operant conditioning can occur. Superstitious behavior is a good example of operant conditioning. Not washing your socks before a big game has no real effect on whether or not your team wins in the playoffs. But if your team wins after you happened not to wash your socks, you may be more likely to not wash your socks before big games. If you keep not washing your socks and your team keeps winning, you would likely be conditioned to think that your socks control how well your team does in the playoffs. In operant conditioning, the behavior of the subject is dictated by the consequence of those actions.
Extinction, in classical...

Other Papers Like Phobias & Addictions

Phobias and Addictions Essay

1628 words - 7 pages Phobias and Addictions in Classical and Operant Conditioning Ryan Atkins PSY/300 August 16, 2010 Jennifer Murphy CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY: I certify that the attached paper, which was produced for the class identified above, is my original work and has not previously been submitted by me or by anyone else for any class. I further declare that I have cited all sources from which I used language, ideas and information, whether quoted

Phobias, Addictions, Conditioning Essay

968 words - 4 pages Phobias, Addiction, Conditioning Amy A. Schroeder University of Phoenix General Psychology 300 Belky Schwartz March 16, 2014 Phobias, Addiction, Conditioning Phobias, addictions born that way or are we taught these characteristics through different forms of conditions that occur throughout our lives, in this paper I will be exploring these ideas. Distinguish between classical and operant condition, explain what extinction means and

Phobias and Addictions

867 words - 4 pages Phobias and Addictions Victor Soto PSY/300 February 22, 2012 Dr. Amy Loder Psy.D Phobias and Addictions A textbook definition of phobia is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation. How does such an irrational fear begin can probably be explained through classical conditioning. In other words fears are learned. Learning is any relatively permanent

Phobias and Addictions

1286 words - 6 pages Phobias and Addictions January 25, 2012 Phobias and Addictions Why do individuals do the things they do? Could it possibly be due to the individual’s upbringing? Could it possibly be caused by the age old argument of what the media has given society as entertainment? Either way the coin is flipped something will have a significant influence the way an individual will act. This is what researchers call conditioning. Classical conditioning

Phobias and Addiction

908 words - 4 pages Phobias and Addiction Eugene McDaniel PSY/300 May 22, 2012 Deandriea Bass Abstract * This paper explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning this can be thought of as a reaction that is learned through the pairing of stimuli. How addictions can be developed through operant conditioning. Operant conditioning, also called instrumental conditioning, is a method for modifying behavior an operant which utilizes

Classical Conditioning

1344 words - 6 pages ABSTRACT Classical and Operant conditioning are two learning processes that we use through our daily lives. Classical conditioning is shown by when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus to get a conditioned response and can indeed cause phobias. Phobias are an intense or irrational fear and the avoidance of a specific object or situation (Huffman, 2008). Operant conditioning is the formation of an association between a

Operant Conditioning

608 words - 3 pages . These same inexpensive items would not likely serve to change the behavior of someone with greater financial means. Source(s):


668 words - 3 pages . Psychotherapy can be helpful in treating most mental health problems, including: Anxiety disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), phobias, panic disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Mood disorders, such as depression or bipolar disorder Addictions, such as alcoholism, drug dependence or compulsive gambling Eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia Personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder

Soft Sciences

1350 words - 6 pages addictions as related to classical and operant conditional. Phobia is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation. Phobias can be developed through classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning by stimulus from the environment. In layman’s term, a toddler learns that a pot on the stove is hot and should not be touch. The toddler then develop phobia that hot stove burn the skin and as a result stay away from it

Describe and Evaluate Two Approaches to the Treatment of Self-Defeating Behaviour

2302 words - 10 pages habitual or temporarily rewarding, like with addictions. Nausea inducing drugs with an alcoholic drink can be given to alcoholics, in order for them to associate the alcohol with the nausea. A method used in phobias is systematic desensitization, where the individual is trained to relax in an anxiety inducing situation. Generally cognitive behavioural therapy is used along side medications and other psychotherapies. “However, several

Principles of Health and Social Care

1831 words - 8 pages . Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can be as effective as medication in treating some mental health problems and can also be completed over a relatively short period of time. CBT can be used to treat depression or anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), phobias and addictions (, 2014). Your perception to a situation contributes to determining how stressful a situation is to you

Related Essays

Phobias & Addictions Essay

1236 words - 5 pages Phobias & Addictions PSY/300 December 17, 2013 Betsy Ferronato Phobias & Addictions Within society, many individuals suffer from phobias or addictions and sometimes even both. A phobia is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation. Addiction is a need or enslavement to a substance, an object, an activity, or a habit that is psychologically or physically habit-forming such as narcotics are, to such an extent that its cessation

Phobias And Addictions Essay 844 Words

844 words - 4 pages Phobias and Addictions Paper Psy/300 4/26/14 Phobias and Addictions Paper Introduction Several individuals develop phobias or addictions in their lifetime. Phobias are an illogical fear that is of no danger to anyone else. Phobias are developed through classical conditioning. According to Barlett (2013) “addiction is defined as the need for and use of a habit forming substance despite knowledge that the substance is harmful” (p. 349

Phobias And Addictions Essay 956 Words

956 words - 4 pages Phobias and Addictions Tenina M. Brown PSY/300 February 04, 2013 Richard Alpert Phobias and Addictions Phobias and Addictions are behaviors that are learned through association to a stimulus. A phobia is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation (Kowalski& Westen, 2011). Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. Both phobias and addictions are learned by association and by learning methods such

Phobias And Addictions Essay 984 Words

984 words - 4 pages Phobias and Addictions Phobias and Addictions Everyone has a phobia and an addiction. A phobia is an extreme or irrational fear of or aversion to something: "he had a phobia about being under water"; "a phobia of germs.” An addiction is the fact or condition of being addicted to a particular substance, thing, or activity. Phobias and addictions are related to classical and operant conditioning. Phobias and