This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Philosophers Essay

1825 words - 8 pages

-------------------------------------------------
Kazakh Ablai Khan University of International Relations
-------------------------------------------------
and World Languages
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Faculty of International Relations
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Chair of International Relations
-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------
Independent work
...view middle of the document...

It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric, and aesthetics.

Many philosophers today concede that Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western thought since its inception. Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." Clear, unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers to Early Islamic philosophy, the European Renaissance and the Age of Enlightenment.

Some claim that Greek philosophy, in turn, was influenced by the older wisdom literature and mythological cosmogonies of the ancient Near East. Martin Litchfield West gives qualified assent to this view, stating, "contact with oriental cosmology and theology helped to liberate the early Greek philosophers' imagination; it certainly gave them many suggestive ideas. But they taught themselves to reason. Philosophy as we understand it is a Greek creation."

Subsequent philosophic tradition was so influenced by Socrates (as presented by Plato) that it is conventional to refer to philosophy developed prior to Socrates as pre-Socratic philosophy. The periods following this until the wars of Alexander the Great are those of "classical Greek" and "Hellenistic" philosophy.
Pre-Socratic philosophy
The convention of terming those philosophers who were active prior to Socrates the pre-Socratics gained currency with the 1903 publication of Hermann Diels' Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, although the term did not originate with him. The term is considered philosophically useful because what came to be known as the "Athenian school" (composed of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle) signaled a profound shift in the subject matter and methods of philosophy; Friedrich Nietzsche's thesis that this shift began with Plato rather than with Socrates (hence his nomenclature of "pre-Platonic philosophy") has not prevented the predominance of the "pre-Socratic" distinction.

The pre-Socratics were primarily concerned with cosmology, ontology and mathematics. They were distinguished from "non-philosophers" insofar as they rejected mythological explanations in favor of reasoned discourse
Milesian school
Thales of Miletus, regarded by Aristotle as the first philosopher, held that all things arise from water. It is not because he gave a cosmogony that John Burnet calls him the "first man of science," but because he gave a naturalistic explanation of the cosmos and supported it with reasons. According to tradition, Thales was able to predict an eclipse and taught the Egyptians how to measure the height of the pyramids.

Thales inspired the Milesian school of philosophy and was followed by Anaximander, who argued that the substratum or arche could not be water or any of the classical elements but was instead something "unlimited" or "indefinite" (in Greek, the apeiron). He began...

Other Papers Like Philosophers

Eastern And Western Philosophers Comparison Essay

747 words - 3 pages Eastern and Western Philosophers Comparison Paper Gillian DiCara PHI/105 Friday, 2 October 2010 Phil McGowan Eastern and Western Philosophers Comparison I chose to compare Kant and Buddha, with a leaning more to the Indian Buddha, rather than the Chinese form of Buddha. The comparison of these two philosophers may seem a little strange but I found that they share a similarity of thought. Kant’s moral law, which can be simplified to

Eastern and Western Philosophers Comparison Essay

802 words - 4 pages Eastern and Western Philosophers Comparison Aurelia Williams University of Phoenix Axia College 03/12/2011 Eastern and Western philosophical views are greatly different. The philosophy of eastern philosophers tends to deal more with religion whereas western philosophy does not. I will compare the views of western philosopher

Eastern and Western Philosophers Comparison

1144 words - 5 pages world. He gathered a loyal following and eventually became a teacher of such a philosophy that spread from country to country. These philosophers have been compared but ever so slightly and eventually reflect the aspects that make them so truly different. The philosophy of Buddhism began with an Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama. He was later known as Buddha, which means the Enlightened One. During his early years, his father shielded

Philosophers on Materialism and Dualism

996 words - 4 pages Materialism: Gilbert Ryle in the ‘Concept of the Mind’ talks about the soul, which he refers to as the ‘ghost in the machine’. He claims that it is a ‘category mistake’ to talk about the soul. It is a mistake in the use of language, resulting in people speaking of the mind and body as different phenomena. Talk of the soul refers to the way in which a person acted and integrated with others in the world. Dawkins argued that there is no pre

Analysis of Platos Philosopher King

640 words - 3 pages In this part of The Republic, Plato suggests that only the philosophers have the capability to know something, since they are the only ones that have access to the world of forms, and because of this ability, they should be the kings (guardians), hence the term philosopher-king. But before going further, Plato describes the difference between a philosopher and a lover of sights and sounds. The lovers of sights and sounds only deal with the

History of Psychology

1021 words - 5 pages History of Psychology Katrena Taylor PSY/310 October 11, 2011 History of Psychology Psychology at one time was just a branch of philosophy, it was 1000’s of years before it was known to be a formal discipline. It evolved from “ideas” of early philosophers into a science of its own. Centuries ago Western Philosophers began the formation of psychology as a branch of philosophy, but explored the

"Bisy Backson" representing the most misguided of Western Society

565 words - 3 pages In the novel, The Tao of Pooh we are introduced to "Bisy Backson" who represents the most misguided of Western Society, as well, we are shown that Western societal thinkers/philosophers/writers represent, in their own way, the Tao. "Bisy Backson" confuses exercise with work and activity with creativity. "The Bisy Backson is almost desperately active," (p. 93) says Benjamin Hoff. He adds, "Let's put it this way: if you want to be healthy, relaxed

Constructing an Utopia: Kallipolis

1117 words - 5 pages Constructing an Utopia: Kallipolis Plato, one of the well-known Greek philosophers, studies the issues of what justice is and what a just man is like in his dialogue-based piece The Republic. He explicitly identifies the parts of the city as well as the parts of the individual’s soul. His aim is to create and identify an ideal city which he calls “Kallipolis”. He divides the society into three categories based on people’s abilities

Modern Psychology: Philosophical Roots

1348 words - 6 pages Modern Psychology: Philosophical Roots Although modern psychology is a relatively new science, historically the manifestations are seen in early civilization. Man has long sought ways to understand and address the mental ailments of patients. First through the primitive attempts of shaman, medicine men, mid-wives and enchanters to heal the mind through religious ceremony, herbal remedies and magic, explored by philosophers during the

Women in Philosophy

1138 words - 5 pages and heard many male philosophers since ancient times till now. And many of them are very successful in their field and very well recognized. But why women philosophers have not received the same notoriety as male philosophers? I always get disappointed that why there are no importance for women philosophers in our society. If you search internet you cannot find more than hundred names, although women philosophers have also been contributed since

Philosophy 103- Paper 1

1255 words - 6 pages Evan Anderson 1/28/2015 Philosophy: What is philosophy? Well, that is an incredible difficult question to answer. Part of the reason is it is so hard to answer is because many famous philosophers, the ones who actually “do” the activity in question, don’t agree on one set definition and even go as far as to disagree with each other when putting fourth their own definitions. So how can we have a set answer to that question? Well this means

Related Essays

Ancient Philosophers Essay

1275 words - 6 pages Aristotle said, “Man by nature desires to know.” The great philosophers like, Plato and Socrates, provided us the foundation to gain necessary information in an organized manner. Socrates himself established what is known as the “Socratic method” which is form of question and answers and discussion, similar to forum or debate. In the “Socratic Method” individuals sit between themselves and ask and answer questions; this done to stimulate

Greek Philosophers Essay

1018 words - 5 pages Greek Philosophers Socrates, Plato and Aristotle had virtually the same beliefs about man's relation to the State, although Plato's political theory of the State was more rational than Socrates or Aristotle's. Socrates, Plato and Aristotle all believed that man was not self-sufficient, they believed man would be most happy living in a State. They also believed that all men wanted to live the truly good life where they could be in tune

Arguments Between Two Philosophers Essay

782 words - 4 pages Arguments between Two Philosophers Let us set ground rules for this debate. First knowledge is real. Second what we experience with our senses are real. Both are fixed and unchanging Correct A. Then there is the issue that both cannot be true. P. Correct A. Then disproving these theories is what must be done. P. Correct A. Knowledge is real because we learn from knowledge P. What we experience with our senses must be real

Philosophers And Epistemological Skepticism Essay

1271 words - 6 pages address sharing knowledge with their followers. Scholars, researchers, mangers, and leaders can benefit in many ways by further researching the philosophies and how these ideas apply to one’s attempts to share knowledge. Philosophers and Epistemological Skepticism All arguments about knowledge involve skepticism in its genuine form, a doubt or disbelief. This suspicion is present in many workplaces as decisions made by leaders