This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Phil 1301 Essay

583 words - 3 pages

An action is involuntary when it is performed under compulsion and causes pain to the person acting. There are borderline cases, as when someone is compelled to do something dishonorable under threat, but we should generally consider such cases voluntary, since the person is still in control of his or her actions. Something done in ignorance may be called involuntary if the person later recognizes that ignorance, but it is non-voluntary if the person does not recognize or suffer for such ignorance. However, ignorance can excuse only particular cases, and not general behavior, since general ignorance of what is good is precisely what makes a person bad.
It seems the best measure of moral goodness is choice, because unlike actions, choices are always made voluntarily. We make choices about the means we use to achieve a desired end. Deliberation, which precedes ...view middle of the document...

Both virtue and vice, therefore, lie within human power, because they are related to choices that we make voluntarily and deliberately. This conclusion is borne out by the fact that rewards and punishments are only conferred on those actions that we are thought to have done voluntarily. People who behave badly form bad habits that are difficult to change, but their lack of self-control is hardly an excuse for their badness.
Having examined virtue in the abstract, Aristotle examines each particular virtue, starting with courage, which he defines as the appropriate attitude toward fear. Courage does not mean fearlessness, as there are some things, such as shame or brutality toward one’s family, which one ought to fear. Rather, courage involves confidence in the face of fear, best exhibited on the battlefield, where men show themselves unafraid to die an honorable death. An excess of fearfulness constitutes the vice of cowardice, and a deficiency constitutes rashness.
Certain dispositions resemble courage but are not in fact courageous. The soldier who fights for fear of dishonor, the veteran who shows no fear in the face of what he knows to be a false alarm, the spirited soldier aroused by anger or pain, the sanguine man who is unafraid due to overconfidence, and the soldier ignorant of the danger he faces are not courageous. Courage is a difficult and admirable virtue, because it involves enduring pain.
Temperance is the mean state with regard to physical pleasure, while licentiousness is the vice of excessive yearning for physical pleasure. The grossest pleasures are those of taste, and especially touch, which are most liable to be sources of licentiousness. The licentious person feels not only excessive pleasure with regard to physical sensations, but also excessive pain when deprived of these pleasures. The vice of deficiency toward pleasure is so rare that it lacks a name, though we could perhaps call it insensibility. The temperate person will feel appropriate amounts of pleasure, and only toward those things that are conducive to health and fitness.

Other Papers Like Phil 1301

Freedom And Responsibility Essay

2141 words - 9 pages Built within the Constitution of the United States are specifically defined freedoms that are guaranteed to all citizens. Conversely, with every constitutional freedom there comes a corresponding responsibility. On September 25, 1789, the state legislature’s twelve proposed amendments were transmitted by congress, the first two dealing with congressional representation and congressional pay. The following numbers three through twelve were

Hate Crime Laws Essay

2348 words - 10 pages On June 7, 1998, 49-year-old James Byrd Jr. of Texas accepted a ride from three white men, who then beat him severely, urinated on him, chained him by his ankles to the back of their pick-up truck, dragged him for three miles into the countryside, and dumped his corpse in front of an African-American cemetery (Graczyk). A little over a year later, a jury sentenced ring leader John King to death by lethal injection (“Man Executed for Dragging

Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study Conceptualization And Treatment Plan

2140 words - 9 pages Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study of Sarah: A Conceptualization and Treatment Plan Rational emotive behavior therapy, REBT, was developed by Albert Ellis and holds the central belief that the events in our lives do not cause our disturbances but that they are instead caused by our view of the events (Murdock, 2009). Murdock (2009) states that “people are seen as responsible for their behavior” (p. 279) but, because they are

Holidays In Albania

1636 words - 7 pages Have you ever thought about having exciting and incredibly cheap vacations? Albania might be the right choice. According to My Travel Guide, Albania is ranked the fourth among ten places worth visiting in Eastern Europe (“Top 10 Eastern European Destinations”). One can encounter three kinds of vacations in this Mediterranean country: winter, summer, and cultural. The ideal places to spend your winter vacations are the Albanian Alps. They are

A Heart Of Darkness

1748 words - 7 pages In this short story, there are frequent significant subject and ideas that make the story, "A Heart of Darkness," by Joseph Conrad, and haunting novel. The main theme is absolute white power over the natives. The theme validates the corruption, and the dependence caused by the white people as they took over the Congo. White men were giving all the power; they had no self-control, and in the end they did not use wisely. The white men became

The Aspects Of Vulnerability Among The Exploited In Medical Research

2287 words - 10 pages Essentially, everyone is in some state of vulnerability. However, some of us are more susceptible to harm due to our vulnerabilities. The susceptible are the individuals with the greatest risk. These individuals risk the loss of their autonomy, and maybe even their lives. Vulnerable populations can be found in every subset of society. However, as previously mentioned, there are some vulnerable populations that are at an even greater risk than

The Hitchhiker’S Guide To The Galaxy

1171 words - 5 pages The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy As the human race makes life-changing discoveries, it is made apparent that there is always more to learn as the universe, instead of becoming familiar, is becoming absurd. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, written by Douglas Adams, as well as the 2005 film adaption, portrays absurdity to be an all-encompassing system in the universe. Through the introduction and attempt to understand lack of reason, the

The Ford Motor Company Wage Increase Of 1914 And The Theory Of Incentives And Efficiency Wages

1252 words - 6 pages ‘It’s not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages’ (Henry Ford, cited in Johnson and Weinstein 2004, p. 2). When the Ford Motor Company announced that it would more than double the wages of its workers in January 1914 to a ‘five-dollar day’ minimum, was this a contradiction to Henry Ford’s statement? If customers are actually the ultimate payers of wages, then more than

Historical Analysis Of The Economical Breakthroughs Of The Industrial Revolution

1396 words - 6 pages A Historical Analysis of the Economical Breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution, many elements of society experienced huge breakthroughs that would change the way they functioned forever. Economics were definitely one of them. With many new inventions and many factories appearing, many, many, more resources were being created than ever before. Also, all of the revenue from these resources was being given to

Leadership Portrayed in Monologue from Shakespeare’s Henry V

1214 words - 5 pages Leadership is defined as a socially constructed process and which also affect organizational future outcomes. Leader is someone at high position who have overall duty for an organization, she or he decide what to do and the way how to achieve it. (Carter and Greer, 2013)The role of leader is extremely important for an organization, leader use their own power to influence the followers though many different ways such as motivation in order to

Cuba Civil Rights

1906 words - 8 pages Picture a country that has limits on how much you can make random government imprisonments and more what do you do. That is the situation for the eleven million seventy-five thousand two hundred forty-four people of Cuba since the takeover of Fidel Castro. The US is opposed to Castro taking control of Cuba. Castro managed to ease the United States nerves when he said that Cuba was against all forms of communism. According to Lana Wylie the Union

Related Essays

Lfddfsdfsd Essay

5830 words - 24 pages 188,807,861* NY2:e177544 188,807,861* NY2:\1177544\01\P8LK01!.DOC\81793.0001 FUNB-Phil Main West LB Custodial Trust Merrill Lynch Citibank NA Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. Mizuho Holdings- DKB/Fuj/IBJ BNP Paribas Fleet National Bank Intesabci S P A BNY Clearing Services, LLC Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi 123 South Broad Street 10th Floor – Capital Changes Philadelphia, PA 19109 Attn: Eileen Blake Fax No.: (215) 973-1348 1211 Avenue of the1\P8LK01!.DOC1793.0001 FUNB-Phil Main West LB Custodial Trust Merrill Lynch Citibank NA Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. Mizuho Holdings- DKB/Fuj/IBJ BNP Paribas Fleet National Bank Intesabci S P A BNY Clearing Services, LLC Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi 123 South Broad Street 10th Floor – Capital Changes Philadelphia, PA 19109 Attn: Eileen Blake Fax No.: (215) 973-1348 1211 Avenue of the

Principles Of Information Security Essay

3291 words - 14 pages both confidentiality and digital signatures; the RSA family of computer encryption algorithms was born. The initial RSA algorithm was published in the Communication of ACM. Phil Zimmermann released the first version of PGP (Pretty Good Privacy); PGP was released as freeware and became the worldwide standard for public cryptosystems. Rijndael’s cipher was selected as the Advanced Encryption Standard. 1939–42 1942 1948 1970 1976 1976 1977 1978

Principles Of Information Security Essay

3241 words - 13 pages for both confidentiality and digital signatures; the RSA family of computer encryption algorithms was born. 1978 The initial RSA algorithm was published in the Communication of ACM. 1991 Phil Zimmermann released the first version of PGP (Pretty Good Privacy); PGP was released as freeware and became the worldwide standard for public cryptosystems. 2000 Rijndael’s cipher was selected as the Advanced Encryption Standard. Table 8

Computer System Security Essay

3291 words - 14 pages both confidentiality and digital signatures; the RSA family of computer encryption algorithms was born. The initial RSA algorithm was published in the Communication of ACM. Phil Zimmermann released the first version of PGP (Pretty Good Privacy); PGP was released as freeware and became the worldwide standard for public cryptosystems. Rijndael’s cipher was selected as the Advanced Encryption Standard. 1939–42 1942 1948 1970 1976 1976 1977 1978