Peru, officially the Republic of Peru is a country located on the western side of South America, whose territory borders the Pacific Ocean to the west and bounded on the north with Ecuador, northeastern Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia and southern Chile. It has a complex geography is dominated by the elevations of the Andes and the Pacific currents, which makes the climates and landscapes as widely varied as the desert coast, the highlands of the high Andes and the rainforest of the Amazon basin, all environments that shape the country as a land of great variety of natural resources.
The heterogeneity of geographic and climatic rigors of the country led to the ...view middle of the document...
It is developing countries with a high Human Development Index but even with economic inequalities that has been improving their revenue and decrease their level of poverty significantly in recent years. Their main economic activities include agriculture, fisheries, mining and manufacturing of products like textiles. Politically, the country has organized a representative democratic republic with a multiparty political system structured on the principles of separation of powers and decentralization.
It dividide in 25 regional constituencies (24 departments and the Constitutional Province of Callao).
The earliest evidence of human presence in Peruvian territory has been dated to approximately 9,000 BCE. The oldest known complex society in Peru and the Americas, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3000 and 1800 BCE. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures such as Chavin, Paracas, Mochica, Nazca, Wari, and Chimú. In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.
In 1532, a group of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated Inca Emperor Atahualpa and captured him. Francisco Pizarro demanded gold and silver in exchange for the release of the Inca, and although Francisco Pizarro received a room of gold and the two following rooms with silver, up to the level of the reach of Atahualpa's arm, Atahualpa was executed and Francisco Pizarro conquered the Empire and imposed Spanish rule. Ten years later, the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of Peru, which included all of its South American colonies. Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s with silver mining as its main economic activity and Indian forced labor as its primary workforce. Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines. However, by the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income. In response, the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms, a series of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty of Peru. The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II's rebellion and other revolts, all of which were defeated.
In the early 19th century, while most of South America was swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite hesitated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the military campaigns of José de San Martin and Simon Bolívar. During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power...