Personality consists of broad dispositions, called traits that tend to lead to characteristic responses. People can be described in terms of the basic ways they behave, such as whether the are outgoing and friendly, or whether they are dominant and assertive.
Basic Five Factors
1. Emotional stability
1. Being calm rather than anxious, secures rather then insecure, self-satisfied than self-pitying.
1. Sociable instead of retiring, fun-loving instead of sober, and affectionate instead of reserved.
1. Imaginative rather than practical, preferring variety to routine, and being independent rather than conforming
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Situationism — Personality often varies considerably from one context to another.
Trait Situation Interaction Theory
1. They believe that both trait (person) and situation variables are necessary to understand personality. They also agree that the degree of consistency in personality depend on the kinds of persons, situations, and behaviors sampled. (Pervin, 1993, Mischel, 1995)
2. The link between traits and situations has been more precisely specified
1. The narrowing and more limited trait is, the more likely it will predict behavior.
2. Some people are consistent on some traits
3. Personality traits exert a stronger influence on an individual’s behavior when situational influence is less powerful.
Walter Mischel (1968) — Personality and Assessment, criticized trait view of personality and psychoanalytic approach. Said personality often changes according to situations, unlike the previous approaches which show consistency. Said trait measures poorly predict actual behavior. Made view of situationism- personality varies considerably from one context to another.
Most psychologists today are interactionists, believing in both trait and situation ideas to describe personality. Link between traits and situations specified: more limited and narrower a trait is, more likely it will predict a behavior; not everyone consistent on the same trait; traits give a strong influence on an individual’s behavior when situational influences are less likely to affect personality.
Self-esteem- evaluative & affective dimension of self-concept. AKA self-image, self-worth. Research shows low self-esteem sufferers focus on weaknesses, rather than strengths. Carolin Showers (1992) — showed compartmentalization of pos and neg self-knowledge (i.e. "I’m a brilliant student with wonderful grades" — pos. "I’m in hard classes with hard tests and lots of homework" — neg.) also mixed compartmentalization (i.e. "I’m a brilliant student that takes hard tests and has lots of homework" and "I’m in hard classes that give me wonderful grades.") adjectives are frequent in this compartmentalization.
Susan Harter (1988) — found kids with high self-worth are successful in the domains they perceive as important and discount the importance of other domains that they don’t succeed well in.
Big Five Factors — emotional stability, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Paul Costa and Robert McCrae (1992) made a test to check these — Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory, Revised (or NEO-PI-R)
Longitudinal studies used often in assessing...