This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Personalitatea Essay

3682 words - 15 pages


În viaţa de zi cu zi, tindem să-i etichetăm pe cei din jur în funcţie de tipul de persoană pe care îl reprezintă fiecare. Există tipul prietenos şi sociabil, tipul agresiv, tipul liniştit şi timid, tipul activ şi ocupat, şi aşa mai departe. La baza acestor clasificări se află ideea că fiecare persoană are o anumită personalitate — un anumit fel de a reacţiona şi de a se comporta. Dacă ştim cu ce fel de persoană avem de-a face, ne poate fi mai uşor să-i înţelegem comportamentul. De asemenea, putem să anticipăm reacţiile unei persoane într-o anumită situaţie.
Totuşi, aceste clasificări nu sunt foarte ...view middle of the document...

Una dintre problemele referitoare la „personalitate” este aceea că fiecare percepe diferit acest cuvânt. Multe dicţionare de psihologie susţin că „personalitatea” nu poate fi definită.
Celebrul austriac Sigmund Freud considera că trăsăturile fundamentale ale personalităţii se conturează foarte devreme, probabil în primii cinci ani de viaţă. Acestea sunt influenţate de experienţe, ca suptul la pieptul mamei, consumul alimentelor solide, deprinderea mersului la toaletă şi impulsurile sexuale. Treptat, aceste experienţe se combină şi se integrează, dar personalitatea se modifică şi se dezvoltă de-a lungul copilăriei pănă în perioada adultă.
Concepţiile moderne referitoare la astfel de teorii insistă asupra modului în care copiii reacţionează între ei şi faţă de adulţi, cum îşi fac prieteni sau duşmani şi cum se integrează într-o anumită cultură sau societate.
Sigmund Freud a susţinut că personalitatea se compune din trei elemente: ego, id, şi superengo. Egoul corespunde cel mai bine cu eul pe care îl cunoaştem. Prin id el a cuprins instinctele primare, care stau de fapt la baza oricărui comportament uman. În concepţia lui Freud, rolul superegoului era să controleze activitatea egoului şi a idului. De exemplu, idul ne va îndemna să ne satisfacem foamea, egoul ne va spune în acest caz să mâncăm, iar superegoul ne va controla comportamentul, şi îl supune unui cod moral, astfel încât o persoană normală va mânca respectând o serie de standarde socialmente acceptate.
În anii 1920 şi 1930, psihologul elveţian Carl Jung a elaborat o altă teorie referitoare la tipurile de personalităţi. El era de părere că fiecare dintre noi se poate închide în sine, devenind tăcut, retras şi preocupat de propriile gânduri. Această acţiune poartă numele de introspecţie. De asemenea, putem fi deschişi lucrurilor ce se întâmplă în jurul nostru, devenind mai sociabili şi mai implicaţi în acţiunile celorlalţi. Persoanele care fac aceste lucruri sunt numite extrovertite.
Multe persoane trec de la introspecţie la extrospecţie, în funcţie de circumstanţe. La unele persoane însă, una dintre aceste atitudini tinde să domine. De exemplu, tipul de persoană extrovertită este vorbăreaţă şi activă într-o situaţie în care cele mai multe persoane ar fi tăcute şi rezervate.
Noţiunea celor două tipuri de personalităţi principale a lui Jung nu mai este în totalitate acceptată de majoritatea psihologilor, deşi introspecţia şi extrospecţia au devenit cuvinte descriptive utile. In prezent se acordă mai puţină importanţă tipurilor de personalităţi, acestea fiind folosite doar pentru identificarea cazurilor extreme. Majoritatea psihologilor sunt de acord că personalităţile sunt extrem de complicate, variate şi schimbătoare.
În accepţiunea sa cea mai largă, termenul de personalitate...

Other Papers Like Personalitatea

Holidays In Albania Essay

1636 words - 7 pages Have you ever thought about having exciting and incredibly cheap vacations? Albania might be the right choice. According to My Travel Guide, Albania is ranked the fourth among ten places worth visiting in Eastern Europe (“Top 10 Eastern European Destinations”). One can encounter three kinds of vacations in this Mediterranean country: winter, summer, and cultural. The ideal places to spend your winter vacations are the Albanian Alps. They are

A Heart Of Darkness Essay

1748 words - 7 pages In this short story, there are frequent significant subject and ideas that make the story, "A Heart of Darkness," by Joseph Conrad, and haunting novel. The main theme is absolute white power over the natives. The theme validates the corruption, and the dependence caused by the white people as they took over the Congo. White men were giving all the power; they had no self-control, and in the end they did not use wisely. The white men became

The Aspects Of Vulnerability Among The Exploited In Medical Research

2287 words - 10 pages Essentially, everyone is in some state of vulnerability. However, some of us are more susceptible to harm due to our vulnerabilities. The susceptible are the individuals with the greatest risk. These individuals risk the loss of their autonomy, and maybe even their lives. Vulnerable populations can be found in every subset of society. However, as previously mentioned, there are some vulnerable populations that are at an even greater risk than

The Hitchhiker’S Guide To The Galaxy

1171 words - 5 pages The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy As the human race makes life-changing discoveries, it is made apparent that there is always more to learn as the universe, instead of becoming familiar, is becoming absurd. The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, written by Douglas Adams, as well as the 2005 film adaption, portrays absurdity to be an all-encompassing system in the universe. Through the introduction and attempt to understand lack of reason, the

The Ford Motor Company Wage Increase Of 1914 And The Theory Of Incentives And Efficiency Wages

1252 words - 6 pages ‘It’s not the employer who pays the wages. Employers only handle the money. It is the customer who pays the wages’ (Henry Ford, cited in Johnson and Weinstein 2004, p. 2). When the Ford Motor Company announced that it would more than double the wages of its workers in January 1914 to a ‘five-dollar day’ minimum, was this a contradiction to Henry Ford’s statement? If customers are actually the ultimate payers of wages, then more than

Historical Analysis Of The Economical Breakthroughs Of The Industrial Revolution

1396 words - 6 pages A Historical Analysis of the Economical Breakthroughs of the Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution, many elements of society experienced huge breakthroughs that would change the way they functioned forever. Economics were definitely one of them. With many new inventions and many factories appearing, many, many, more resources were being created than ever before. Also, all of the revenue from these resources was being given to

Leadership Portrayed in Monologue from Shakespeare’s Henry V

1214 words - 5 pages Leadership is defined as a socially constructed process and which also affect organizational future outcomes. Leader is someone at high position who have overall duty for an organization, she or he decide what to do and the way how to achieve it. (Carter and Greer, 2013)The role of leader is extremely important for an organization, leader use their own power to influence the followers though many different ways such as motivation in order to

Cuba Civil Rights

1906 words - 8 pages Picture a country that has limits on how much you can make random government imprisonments and more what do you do. That is the situation for the eleven million seventy-five thousand two hundred forty-four people of Cuba since the takeover of Fidel Castro. The US is opposed to Castro taking control of Cuba. Castro managed to ease the United States nerves when he said that Cuba was against all forms of communism. According to Lana Wylie the Union

US Freight System

1273 words - 6 pages General Environment Each American requires the movement of approximately 40 tons of freight per year across the freight network. This includes everything from shirts to lawn mower to orange juice. • As the U.S. population expands, the U.S. freight system will be called upon to meet the demands of a larger population • Between 2010 and 2035, the system will experience a 22 percent increase in the total amount of tonnage it moves • By 2050, with

Democratic Peace Theory

1852 words - 8 pages Intro: US Presidents have made it a goal during their term(s) in office to establish a good relationship with foreign countries and even try to improve upon existing connections with our allies. Some believe it is to prevent conflicts between the countries while others dispute that it is a threat assessment by the United States to pick and choose their friends and enemies. Preventing conflict between two democracies or countries that practice

Booker T. Washington

1621 words - 7 pages “Success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome” –Booker T. Washing. Booker Taliaferro Washington was born in Hale’s Ford, Virginia on April 5th, 1856 to Jane Burroughs and an unknown White man. Washington was married three times. His first wife was Fannie N. Smith from Malden, West Virginia. Booker and Fannie were married in the summer of 1882 and had one child

Related Essays

Creativitatea Si Valori Organizationale Essay

4572 words - 19 pages . Activitatea creativă este întreprinsă și urmărită ca un bine general care are potențialul de a aduce inovația în societate și, astfel, de a îmbunătăți considerabil viețile oamenilor, pe când acțiunile motivate de valorile auto-realizării sunt incompatibile cu actul creativ (Sousa & Coehlo, 2001, p. 9). Astfel, putem conchide că, deși personalitatea creatoare se manifestă printr-o deosebită complexitate și nu poate fi cu

Freedom And Responsibility Essay

2141 words - 9 pages Built within the Constitution of the United States are specifically defined freedoms that are guaranteed to all citizens. Conversely, with every constitutional freedom there comes a corresponding responsibility. On September 25, 1789, the state legislature’s twelve proposed amendments were transmitted by congress, the first two dealing with congressional representation and congressional pay. The following numbers three through twelve were

Hate Crime Laws Essay

2348 words - 10 pages On June 7, 1998, 49-year-old James Byrd Jr. of Texas accepted a ride from three white men, who then beat him severely, urinated on him, chained him by his ankles to the back of their pick-up truck, dragged him for three miles into the countryside, and dumped his corpse in front of an African-American cemetery (Graczyk). A little over a year later, a jury sentenced ring leader John King to death by lethal injection (“Man Executed for Dragging

Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study Conceptualization And Treatment Plan

2140 words - 9 pages Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy Case Study of Sarah: A Conceptualization and Treatment Plan Rational emotive behavior therapy, REBT, was developed by Albert Ellis and holds the central belief that the events in our lives do not cause our disturbances but that they are instead caused by our view of the events (Murdock, 2009). Murdock (2009) states that “people are seen as responsible for their behavior” (p. 279) but, because they are