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Perjanjian Inggeris 1824 Essay

1771 words - 8 pages

Perjanjian Inggeris 1824

Perjanjian Inggeris 1824 juga dikenali sebagai Perjanjian London 1824. Perjanjian ini ditandatangani untuk mengatasi masalah antara Inggeris dan Belanda yang mana hubungan keduanya sentiasa dalam keadaan tegang di samping adanya kepentingan-kepentingan mereka sendiri. Termeterainya perjanjian tersebut merupakan peristiwa paling penting dalam sejarah Tanah Melayu dan juga Indonesia.

Faktor-faktor membawa kepada perjanjian
1. Persaingan perdagangan di Timur
Sejak kedatangan pihak Belanda dan British di Timur terutamanya di Asia Tenggara pada awal abad ke-17, kedua-dua ini sudah tidak mempunyai perhubungan baik. VOC yang bertapak di ...view middle of the document...

dalam kejadian ini, beberapa orang Inggeris dan Portugis telah dihukum bunuh kerana ditubuh mengadakan komplot untuk menggulingkan pemerintah Belanda di Ambon.
Akibat dari kejadian ini, hubungan di antara mereka menjadi tegang dan pihak British hampir menutup hampir semua lojinya kecuali di Bangkahulu di selatan pantai barat Sumatera dan berundur dari Kepulauan Hindia Timur. Kegiatan perdagangan mereka kemudian bertumpu di India.
2. Dasar persahabatan Inggeris-Belanda di Eropah
Bagi British persahabatannya dengan Belanda adalah penting dari segi “pertahanan/keselamatan”. Ini disebabkan kedudukan antara Negeri Belanda dengan British adalah berdekatan. Negeri Belanda ialah tempat yang paling sesuai untuk digunakan oleh pihak musuh sebagai tapak untuk menyerang British. Peristiwa ini telah pun terjadi pada tahun 1795, apabila Napoleon Bonaparte menggunakan negeri Belanda sebagai pusat gerakan tenteranya untuk menyerang British.

Dalam peristiwa ini, British sedar bahawa Belanda dapat menentukan masa depan Btitish. Oleh itu, pihak British benar-benar mengharapkan bantuan dan persahabatan dari Belanda untuk menentang musuh. Malahan, British terpaksa membantu Belanda menguatkan pasukan tenteranya supaya negeri itu dapat mempertahankan diri dari serangan musuh. Ini membuktikan bahawa British berharap agar Belanda menjadi barisan hadapan jika terjadi sebarang peperangan.
British juga sedar bahawa kedudukannya di Eropah mulai terancam. Ini disebabkan perhubungannya dengan negara-negara Barat yang lain telah pudar. Selepas Perang Napoleon (1795-1815), British terpencil dari rakan-rakan sekutunya yang pada satu ketika dahulu sama-sama menentang Napoleon. Prusia, Austria dan Rusia mulai mengasingkan diri dari England kerana perbezaan idea dan juga disebabkan perbezaan mazhab agama. Oleh itu, British mengharapkan Belanda dapat menjadi penyokongnnya di Eropah.
Keinginan British untuk berbaik-baik dengan Belanda jelas kelihatan dalam Konvensyen 1815 yang berlangsung selepas tamatnya Perang Napoleon. Inggeris telah bersetuju untuk menyerahkan Jawa pada tahun 1816 dan Melaka pada tahun 1818 kepada Belanda yang diperolehi melalui Surat-surat Kew 1795. Kerajaan British berbuat demikian sungguhpun mendapat tentangan hebat daripada SHTI memandangkan Pulau Jawa merupakan sebuah pelabuhan perdagangan yang berpotensi.
3. Dasar-dasar Raffles di Singapura dan pertelingkahan mengenai Singapura
Stamford Raffles menentang keputusan pihak British yang hendak memulangkan Pulau Jawa kepada Belanda. Raffles berpendapat bahawa Pulau Jawa amat penting bagi strategi British sama ada dari segi perdagangan mahupun ketenteraan. Tambahan pula, Pulau Pinang yang dibuka pada tahun 1786 tidak lagi dapat berfungsi sebagai pusat perdagangan SHTI di rantau ini kerana kedudukannya yang jauh di utara dan di luar laluan perdagangan. Selain itu, Bengkahulu juga kurang strategik memandangkan kedudukannya di pantai barat Sumatera terpisah daripada laluan...

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