This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Pelvic Bleeding Essay

913 words - 4 pages

Miscarriage or abortion
An abortion is the expulsion of the products of
conception before the 24th week of pregnancy.
The word abortion is often considered by women
to be a procured termination of pregnancy, legal or
criminal. Hence, the softer term miscarriage is better
used for the spontaneous event. A simple classification
is helpful in understanding the various
terms used (Fig. 8.1).
Causes of spontaneous miscarriage
These are maternal, fetal and possibly paternal or
genetic.
Maternal causes
General
• Age.
• Obesity.
• Acute febrile illness.
• Septicaemia with infection of the fetus.
• Severe hypertension or renal disease.
• Diabetes.
• Hypothyroidism.
• Trauma.
• A ...view middle of the document...

Most of these cases end in spontaneous miscarriage;
rarely the pregnancy continues.
Incidence of spontaneous miscarriage
The frequency depends on the definition:
• in clinically diagnosed pregnancies 15–20% will
miscarry in early pregnancy;
• non-development of the blastocyst within 14
days occurs in up to 50% of conceptions.
Clinical features and management of
spontaneous miscarriage
Threatened miscarriage
Symptoms
• Scanty uterine bleeding preceded by symptoms
of pregnancy.
• Pain is usually absent; there may be backache or
slight uterine contractions.
Examination
• The breasts may be active.
• The uterus is enlarged corresponding with dates
of amenorrhoea.
• The cervix is closed.
• There is no pelvic tenderness.
Differential diagnosis
• Delayed miscarriage when the uterus is smaller
than expected. Check with ultrasound.
• Ectopic pregnancy when pain generally precedes
bleeding.
• Dysfunctional uterine bleeding—where no signs
of pregnancy.
Ultrasound can show a sac (five weeks), an embryo
and the fetal heart beat (six weeks). Human
chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) can be measured
in blood or urine.
Treatment
Treatment is usually rest until fresh bleeding has
ceased.
After bleeding has ceased, the woman should
avoid exertion and intercourse till after the 12th
week of pregnancy. Progesterone therapy is ineffective,
but still used.
Inevitable miscarriage
Symptoms
Bleeding and pain are characteristic, bleeding is
heavier than in threatened miscarriage. There may
be crampy, low abdominal pains and an escape of
amniotic fluid.
Examination
• Uterus enlarged.
• The internal os of the cervix is dilated. Prod-
Threatened
Delayed Complete Incomplete Septic
Inevitable
Spontaneous Induced
Miscarriage Abortion
Recurrent Illegal Legal
Therapeutic
Figure 8.1 A simple classification of
the terms used.
Bleeding in pregnancy Chapter 8
97
ucts of conception may be felt in the cervical
canal. Once this has occurred, miscarriage is
inevitable.
Treatment
Before 12 weeks’ gestation, evacuate the uterus
under general anaesthesia in an operating
theatre.
After 12 weeks, allow...

Other Papers Like Pelvic Bleeding

Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Essay

1740 words - 7 pages is inflammation or infection of the cervix. It can be either symptomless or cause bleeding on contact and purulent discharge of the vagina [ (Ricci, 2013) ]. Chlamydia: Chlamydia is caused by the bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis. This bacterium is hard to detect because many women are asymptomatic and do not seek testing. If left untreated it can cause serious and permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system; such as it can make

Abortion and the Risks Essay

903 words - 4 pages ). Unfortunately the number of abortions has been rising up significantly since 1970. The problem today is that a large percent of people look at abortion as a common thing to do. What they are really doing is rejecting a new life into the world. In my contention abortion should be banned, also the risks that come with it are severe. There are so many risks involved in abortions. The chances of bleeding to death isn’t worth taking. One of

Nurses Impact Lives Beyond

2297 words - 10 pages pelvis X-rays are taken, an A-line is started, a left sided chest tube is inserted, a pelvic binder is applied, his scalp laceration is stapled to control an increase in bleeding and the chaplain is diligently pursuing identification of our patient. 15 minutes has gone by and injuries known thus far: blunt head injury with coma, mandible fractures, L pneumothorax, pelvic fracture, femur and tib/fib fracture, probable intra- abdominal injuries are

Negative Effects of Gadgets to Students

1090 words - 5 pages healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms before the 37th week of pregnancy: pain, pressure, or cramping in your belly contractions between weeks 20 and 37 that happen more than 4 times an hour or are less than 15 minutes apart leaking of fluid from the vagina Also call your provider right away if you have: vaginal bleeding a lot of nausea and vomiting a temperature over 100°F (37.8°C) very bad headache new problems

L/D Assessment

530 words - 3 pages . Genitourinary: Self-void with BRP. Denies any pain or bleeding. “Clear and light yellow.” Musculoskeletal: Active ROM in bed. Upper and lower extremities equally strong. Currently on MD ordered bed rest with BRP. Fetal heart tones (baseline, accelerations, decelerations, internal or external monitoring): External Fetal Monior-10 min strip: Baseline:150, 10X10 accelerations. Contraction pattern (frequency, duration, intensity, internal or

Hysterectomy

1299 words - 6 pages for uterine fibroids. Uterine fibroids (also known as uterine leiomyomata) are benign growths of the uterus, the cause of which is unknown. Although the vast majority are benign, meaning they do not cause or turn into cancer, uterine fibroids can cause medical problems. Indications for hysterectomy in cases of uterine fibroids are excessive size (usually greater than the size of an eight month pregnancy), pressure or pain, and/or bleeding severe

Term Paper

5460 words - 22 pages of the uterus to its pre-pregnancy size after childbirth. - Uterus descends at the rate of 1 cm. or 1 fingerbreadth per day. By 2 weeks it should not be palpable above the symphysis pubis. * Causes of Subinvolution of the Uterus * Retained placental fragments * Pelvic infection * Signs : * Prolonged lochial discharge * Irregular or excessive uterine bleeding * Pelvic pain or feelings of heaviness

Sdfsdf

733 words - 3 pages completeness (in the case of abortion or miscarriage treatment) or pathologically for abnormalities (in the case of treatment for abnormal bleeding). Possible Complications * It is normal to experience vaginal bleeding and/or pelvic cramping (similar to menstrual cramping) for a few days after a D&C. Over-the-counter pain medications are usually sufficient for pain control. * Perforation of the uterus with either the dilators or the curette * Injury to the cervix is another possible complication. * Infection (Operating Room) Submitted by: Aiza P. Española BSN-IV STI College, Lucena Submitted to: Ms. Nelly O. Ilagan, RN,MAN Clinical Instructor

Ectopic Pregnancy

701 words - 3 pages increase of these abnormal pregnancies. These include an increased occurrence of female pelvic infections, more frequent use of female sterilization procedures (such as "tubal-ligation"), and the use of ovulation-inducing drugs for infertility. Women who have had a previous ectopic pregnancy are 13 times more likely to have another. Likewise, women who smoke are twice as likely to have an ectopic pregnancy as non-smokers. The diagnosis of this

Teenage Pregnancy

862 words - 4 pages (progestin) and is therefore is okay for use in women who cannot take estrogen. Effectiveness: 99% effective (if used correctly) Safety: Has possible side effects similar to other hormonal methods. For the first 6 months to a year of use, many women experience irregular menstrual spotting and/or bleeding. Eventually, your menstrual flow may be reduced and for some women may stop entirely. Other possible effects to the injection include weight gain

Bio Test #2 Review

1227 words - 5 pages 10. What condition is characterized by heavy bleeding during and between menstrual cycles? Menometrorrhagia 11. What role does oxytocin and prolactin play in a woman’s body? Secretion of milky by alveolar cells, which are under the influence of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. Milk ejection from the ductile system occurs in response to the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary. 12. What are the local effects of

Related Essays

Endometriosis Essay

567 words - 3 pages Debby come in complaining about chronic pelvic pain during her menstruation. What makes her condition worst are her untreated symptoms. The doctors she has already seen told her her pain is related to extra heavy menstruation flow and her test would come back negative. This is having an direct effect on her reproductive system, because she has been unsuccessful in conceiving. Due to the lack of research in endometriosis make it difficult to

Infections Essay

630 words - 3 pages adenocarcinoma Causes: * Abnormal overgrowth of the endometrium * Obesity * Family health history * Radiation therapy to the pelvis Symptoms: * Pelvic pain * Prolonged periods or bleeding between periods * Abnormal watery or blood -streaked discharge * Pain or difficulty when emptying the bladder * Any vaginal bleeding after menopause Diagnosis: A pelvic exam, ultrasound or biopsy is performed to tell whether

Research Project Endometrosis Essay

618 words - 3 pages on the outside. Every month, the endometrial tissue on the outside responds to hormones in the same way as the endometrial tissue on the inside of the uterus. The tissue enlarges, breaks down and causes bleeding. Unlike normal endometrial tissue, it has no way of leaving the body. Endometriosis is typically confined to the pelvic region of the body but it is not uncommon to find it in other regions such as abdominal. According to

Chapter 23 Nursing Care Of The Woman And Family Experiencing Postpartum Complications

3388 words - 14 pages firmness of fundus o (+)excessive bleeding ( firm fundus ( cervical or vaginal laceration ← Assess blood loss; weigh pads, bed liners and linen (1 g = 1 mL) ← Examine for perineum: o Discoloration o Bulging or tender area ( hematoma o Deep unrelieved pelvic pain ( vaginal or retroperitoneal hematoma ← Measure vital signs every 15 minutes ← (+) tachycardia and ( pulse pressure ( sign of hypovolemia ( BP