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Pathophysiology Paper

1628 words - 7 pages

Abstract
This paper will present with a patient’s case study revelations throughout her recent heath problems. It will discuss the patient’s underlying disease of diabetes mellulitiis. The six body systems affected by this disease will be discussed and the major pathophysiologic concepts within each system will be elaborated on.

Our Patient’s Case Study Revelelations
Our patient is a 62 year old female with cellulitis of her right lower leg. This patient has a history of smoking three packs a day for 40 years and unfortunately has admitted to smoking again. She has high blood sugar; however, she cannot remember the name of the medication she is taking for it. She has a “touch” ...view middle of the document...

This makes me wonder if she is taking any high blood medication at all. I believe this patient was not being compliant with her medication regimen and her diabetes spiraled out of control. Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are unable to transport glucose into fat and muscle cell; this causes the body cells to starve and the breakdown of fat and protein to be increased (Porth, 2007). There is also an association
between smoking and the incidence of glucose abnormalities. Smoking can be associated with glucose intolerance, impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle, & Cheever, 2008). Over a period of time, high glucose level in the bloodstream can lead to server complication, such as eye disorders, cardiovascular diseases, kidney damage, and nerve problems (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle, & Cheever, 2008).
How Systems Are Affected By Diabetes Mellitus
The endocrine system produces the hormone, insulin, which regulates glucose, or sugar intake, by helping it move from the blood into cells. The renal system is affected because hihgh blood sugars can cause the kidneys to become overworked and stop working properly. The respiratory system is affected because our patient has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the steroids used for treatment may cause hyperglycemia. The intergumentary system is affected since poorly controlled blood sugars cause bacteria to grow faster and enters the skin. If diabetes is not managed properly, complications can affect the circulatory system. Diabetes can cause cardiovascular issues such as heart disease, hypertension or high blood pressure and affect the blood vessels in other organs. The hepatic system is involved because of the liver’s role in generating glucose (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle, & Cheever, 2008).
Endocrine System
The endocrine system presents our patient with her main concern of diabetes mellitus. The endocrine system is a system of glands that releases hormones and regulate the body. One of the glands that makes up the endocrine system is the pancreas. When the pancreas is impaired and does not produce enough insulin or respond to insulin production, diabetes develops (Porth, 2007). In a healthy person, insulin is produced in response to the increase level of glucose in the bloodstream, and its major role is to control glucose concentration in the blood. Insulin allows the body cells and tissues to use glucose as a main energy source. Insulin is also the hormone responsible for conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the muscles and liver cells. This way, sugar levels are maintained at a near stable amount. In a diabetic person, there is an abnormal metabolism of insulin hormone. The body cells and tissues do not make glucose from blood, resulting in elevated blood glucose or hyperglycemia (Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle, & Cheever, 2008).
Renal System
Diabetes is a major cause of kidney disease. Our patient’s urinary output has greatly...

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