Rise and fall
Prince George, BC, Canada
Prince George, BC, Canada
Course: INTS 310 Origins and Evolution of International Studies
Instructor Name: Ken Wilkening
Student Name: Sidorov Innokentii
In this research essay, I am going to analyze the significant role of papacy in political history of Europe. Determinative role of Christian religion and church in every sphere of social and cultural life was a principal feature of European medieval culture. The Church subordinated to itself politics, morality, ...view middle of the document...
Another strong reason was their formulation of doctrine of Church’s supremacy over temporal authorities. Of course, some kings and even emperors didn’t want to recognize Church’s supremacy and in this cases Papacy used powerful weapon interdict – the prohibition to officiate in interdicted country until subjects won’t dethrone their monarch interdicted by Pope. Moreover, Papacy had power to declare crusades to achieve their political goals and even became the biggest feudal lord because of the crusades.
However, in the end of the 14th and in the beginning of 15th century the papacy started losing its absolute supremacy in Europe. Public hate and dissatisfaction by Church, economic pressure and religious protests caused the strongest blow to the papacy’s power – reformation. So what were the reasons of papacy’s collapse? Why it started to lose its positions in European supremacy?
One of the main reasons was strong decomposition and high corruption of church’s representatives and authorities. It is not a secret, that absolute power changes people for the worse. The same happened with the papacy. They didn’t follow their own commandments and started to live for wealth and pleasure. Even the high priests were exposed with indecent behavior. Another reason was economic changes in society. The social evolution led to the emergence of the new class – bourgeois or capitalists. The material fundament of Roman Church – feudal system became obsolete. And one more thing was clear for sure, this process of church’s reformation and decadence of papacy was unstoppable and comprehensive.
Origins and rise of Papacy
Christian religious doctrine originated from the struggle and interference of many philosophical and religious movements. Generally speaking about primary Christianity, one of the main ideas which helped wide spread of new religion was the idea of equality – equality of sinful creature in face of almighty and merciful God. Christianity, which arose in colony of Ancient Rome in environment of slaves and emancipated serfs, wasn’t a religion of only one nation, it was an international religion since the beginning. As a religious doctrine, Christianity is based on three main ideas:
* The idea of sinfulness of humanity because of the original sin.
* The idea of salvation, which every man have to deserve.
* The idea of the all human Atonement way owing to Jesus who joint in himself divine and human nature.
The first Christian communities were notable for their democratic way of being. However, quite fast the servants of cult – priesthood or clergy started to become strictly multilayered organization. Originally, the highest status had bishops. Rome, Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem and Constantinople – composed five equal ancient archiepiscopates established by apostles. But after Roman bishops started to try to obtain the recognition of their priority among the all clergy of Christian church. In the end of the IV...