P1 – Outline The Functions Of The Main Cell Components

2356 words - 10 pages

P1 – Outline the functions of the main cell components.

2. Nuclear membrane – this is a two-layered membrane surrounding the nucleus of a living cell
2. Nuclear membrane – this is a two-layered membrane surrounding the nucleus of a living cell
3. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum – it is important in making and storage of lipids or fats. It has attached ribosomes.
3. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum – it is important in making and storage of lipids or fats. It has attached ribosomes.

1. Mitochondrion – Every cell in the body have rod-shaped or spherical bodies.
1. Mitochondrion – Every cell in the body have rod-shaped or spherical bodies.

4. Cell membrane – known as a plasma membrane. ...view middle of the document...

Many chemical reactions happen here, called metabolism.
6. Cytoplasm – this is a semi-fluid material that is capable of flowing slowly. Many chemical reactions happen here, called metabolism.
5. Ribosomes – It is a cell structure that makes protein. Protein is needed for many cell functions such as repairing damage.
5. Ribosomes – It is a cell structure that makes protein. Protein is needed for many cell functions such as repairing damage.

P2 - Outline the structure of the main tissues of the body.

Tissues are groups of similar cells carrying out specific functions. There are:
* Epithelial
* Connective
* Muscle and
* Nervous

Epithelial tissues:
Epithelia are the lining of internal and external surfaces and body cavities, including ducts (tubes or channels) carrying secretions from glands. There are simple and compound types of epithelia.

Simple epithelia:
Simple epithelia may be squamous, cuboidal, columnar or ciliated.
Squamous epithelia cells are very flat, with every nucleus forming a lump in the centre. The word ‘squamous’ means ‘scaly’, referring to the flatness of the cells. They fit together closely, rather that crazy paving. Such delicate thin cells cannot offer such protection and their function is to allow materials to pass through from diffusion and osmosis. They are found in:
* Lung alveoli
* Blood capillaries

Cuboidal epithelia cells are cube-shaped, with spherical nuclei. They often line ducts and tubes and allow material to pass through in the same way as squamous epithelia. They occur in glandular tissues making secretions. They can be found in:
* Kidney tubules
* Sweat ducts and
* Glands like the thyroid gland and breast tissue
Columnar epithelial cells are much taller, with slightly oval nuclei. They can often be linked with microscopic filaments known as cilia and are then called ciliated epithelia. Cilia move in wave-like motions, beating towards the orifices.

Compound epithelia:
The main function of compound epithelia is to protect deeper structures, and multiple layers of cells hamper the passage of materials. The vagina, mouth, tongue and oesophagus are lined by stratified epithelia made up of squamous, cuboidal or columnar cells, which gradually becomes flattened by pressure from below as they reach the surface.

Connective tissues:

These tissues are distributed widely in the body and lie beneath the epithelial tissues, connecting different parts of the internal structure. There are various types that lie in a background material known as a matrix. The matrix may be liquid as in blood, jelly-like as in areolar tissue, firm as in cartilage, or hard as in bone. The functions of these tissues are to transport materials (as in blood), give support (as in areolar tissue and cartilage), and strengthen and protect (as in bone).

Blood consists of straw-coloured plasma (the matrix), in which several types of...

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