Overview Of Malaria As A Microbial Disease

2152 words - 9 pages

Overview of Malaria as a Microbial Disease
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Introduction
Quinn et.al. (2011) defines microbial diseases as sickness or ailments that affect animals and humans as a result of the introduction of one or four different types of microbes. For instance, Sorvari and Pirttila (2008) define microbes as tiny invisible disease-causing organisms only seen by the use of a powerful. Notably, there are four different types of pathogens that cause sickness. These are viral diseases that are the most common type of microbe causing diseases to human beings.
Examples of viral diseases include AIDS, chicken pox, influenza and measles (World Health Organization, ...view middle of the document...

This paper aims at discussing the scientific literature providing detailed information on the pathogen causing malaria and the epidemiology of malaria.
Malaria as a Microbial Disease
Malaria is a microbial disease caused by a parasite called Plasmodium. The transmission of the parasite occurs through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The WHO (2004) fact file, termed malaria as a disease spread by bites of a female infected Anopheles mosquito vectors. For instance, there are five major species of Plasmodium parasite that cause malaria in humans. The five species include P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax and P. knowlesi.
While the P. knowlesi is common in animals, P. falciparum is the most deadly species of the five causing infection in human (N I A I D, 2007). Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. In the human body system, the parasites frequently affect the liver and the red blood cells.
Epidemiology
According to the WHO annual reports malaria has a worldwide occurrence. Every year 3.2 billion of people representing a half of the total world population are vulnerable to malaria infection. This cases transforms into about 198 million worldwide malaria cases and approximately 584, 000 disease reported death cases. However, vulnerability to malaria infection is higher among individuals living in poorest countries.
The WHO reports for the year ending 2013 showed that ninety percent of worldwide malaria deaths cases occurred in Africa region with more than 430, 000 mortality cases reported among children under five years of age. Notably, measures aiming at prevention, control and treatment of malaria cases account for the dramatic reduction in the disease burden. For instance, the mortality rates reduced by 47 percent from 2000 to 54% in the African region.
Factors that favored the prevalence of malaria epidemic in West Africa
According to the CBNS news (2014), Guinea was the most affected country in West Africa due to rising disease cases. The regions fight to control and contain Ebola hampered the pre-existing campaigns against malaria. The tropical southern forests in Guinea at Gueckedou beside the village where Ebola began killing people provide favorite breeding grounds for the female anopheles mosquito that bite to transmit the species of Plasmodium causing malaria.
In addition, most of the citizens in the country were sacred to seek care from health facilities hence fail to get treated for malaria. Some citizens rejected from drawing blood to do the tests due to the fear and negative stereotypes of Ebola cases that present similar symptoms to those of malaria. According the doctors reports in Guinea individuals who tested positive for malaria did so Ebola indicating a great disease burden in the country.
A comparison of Liberia, Guineas neighboring country shows that the state suspended the distribution of 2 million net plan. The ban accounts for...

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