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Outline One Contemporary Issue From The Social Approach And Discuss This Issue Using At Least 3 Concepts Or Theories From This Approach

820 words - 4 pages

Why does football hooliganism occur? Football hooliganism has been occurring for decades but has only become recognised by the government and media as being a problem in the last 40 years or so. Football associated violence occurs before and after matches where mobs of supporters roam the streets surrounding the grounds, causing trouble. Football related offences have continued to occur, despite the football clubs efforts to ban alcohol and provide seating for spectators. The source of the violence is triggered by feelings of hostility that supporters hold towards their rivals. Some psychologists believe another cause of the hooliganism is to reflect the search of high levels of emotional ...view middle of the document...

More importantly, the Frustration-Aggression theory does not explain why hooliganism occurs before matches because this is usually before supporters become frustrated. However, it could be that the football supporters are taking out frustration from their personal issues at home/work on other supporters which would then explain the occurrence of hooliganism before the games, still using this theory.

A different explanation for the occurrence of football hooliganism is the social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner). The theory suggests that the formation of groups make people want to give their in-group rewards compared to their out-group, because it enhances their individual self esteem. Therefore competition is not needed for prejudice to occur to out-group, and loyalty to occur to in-group. This theory can be applied to football crowds because the fans feel a loyalty to their team which they consider themselves to be part of. Even without the competition, the fans feel hostility towards their rivals which they often display in forms of violence in order to enhance their own status within their in-group. The theory is supported by Tajfel et al’s study to identify the minimal conditions which lead members of one group to discriminate against members of another group. Participants believed they had been grouped according to the artist they had preferred but had actually been selected randomly by the experimenter. Results showed that participants were more likely to give their own group rewards even though competition was not introduced. However, in football, competition is present despite...

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